Verse citations refer to the traditional Hebrew text. See, for example, the New Jewish Publication Society translation (Philadelphia, 1985).


See Philip J. King, “The Great Eighth Century,” BR 05:04.



Frank Crusemann, “Die unveranderbare Welt. Uberlegungen zur ‘Krisis der Weisheit’ beim Prediger (Kohelet),” in Der Gott der kleinen Leute, ed. Willi Schottroff and Wolfgang Stegemann (Munich, 1979), pp. 80–104. Published in English as The God of the Lowly (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1985).


Michael V. Fox, “Frame-Narrative and Composition in the Book of Qohelet,” Hebrew Union College Annual 48 (1977), pp. 83–106.


James A. Loader (Polar Structures in the Book of Qohelet, Beihefte zur Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 152 [Berlin/New York: de Gruyter, 1979]) works out an elaborate theory of binary opposites within the whole book.


R. Norman Whybray, “Qoheleth, Preacher of Joy,” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 23 (1982), pp. 87–98, and his recent commentary: Ecclesiastes, New Century Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1989).


Graham Ogden, Qoheleth (Sheffield, UK:JSOT Press, 1987), pp. 48, 59–60, 137–138, 160, 213.


Philippe Rouillard, “The Figure of Job in the Liturgy: Indignation, Resignation or Silence?” in Job and the Silence of God, ed. Christian Doquoc and Casiano Floristan (New York: Seabury Press, 1983), pp. 8–12; Terence W. Tilley, “God and the Silencing of Job,” Modern Theology 5 (1989), pp. 257–270.