Coogan originally presented these views in the Palestine Exploration Quarterly 119 (January/June 1987), pp. 1–8.


See my original article, “Bronze Bull Found in Israelite ‘High Place’ from the Time of the Judges,” BAR 09:05, and the more technical version, “The ‘Bull Site’: An Iron Age I Open Cult Place,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR) 247 (1982), pp. 27–42.


See the papers of Moshe Kochavi and Amihai Mazar in Biblical Archaeology Today (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1985), pp. 47–71; Lawrence E. Stager, “The Archaeology of the Family in Ancient Israel,” BASOR 260 (1985), pp. 1–35; Israel Finkelstein, The Archaeology of the Israelite Settlement (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1988), an updated synthesis of the archaeological evidence.