Tanakh is an acronym that stands for Torah, Nebiim (prophets) and Ketubim (sacred writings).


The Tosefta was redacted around 400 A.D. (we have no exact knowledge). The document encompassed three types of teachings. First, it contained direct citations of statements in the Mishnah, which were then glossed or expanded. Second, it included statements that related to, but did not cite verbatim, statements in the Mishnah. These versions of rules cannot be fully understood without referring to their counterparts in the Mishnah. Finally, it presented statements that are entirely autonomous, in theme or in principle or in detail, of anything in the Mishnah. The first two types of materials depend upon, therefore are later than, the Mishnah itself. The third type can derive from the same period as the Mishnah. That type is quite small in proportion to the whole, certainly not more than 20 percent overall.


Also known as the Yerushalmi or Jerusalem Talmud. It is also referred to as the Palestinian Talmud.


There are a number of other books in the rabbinic corpus—for example, Sifrei to Deuteronomy, Sifrei to Numbers, Sifra to Leviticus, Pesikta de-Rav Kahana—but I limit myself in this article to those books which are most relevant to my thesis relating to the parallel development of Judaism and Christianity. Other books of the rabbinic corpus responded to other issues and agendas relating for the most part to concerns internal to Judaism.


The Tanna was a sage who memorized and repeated a teaching of the Mishnah. The word tny corresponds to the Hebrew word for repeat, sny. Tannaim, therefore, preserved Mishnah teachings both before the editing of the Mishnah in about 200 A.D. and afterward.


Rosemary R. Reuther, Studies in Religion 2 (1972), pp. 1–10.


And that is not to ignore the vast internal agenda requiring discussion, questions of no interest whatsoever to the relationship between the two groups. The internal agenda in the writings of both parties to the debate surely predominated.