For more on the Manasseh survey, see Adam Zertal, “Has Joshua’s Altar Been Found on Mt. Ebal?” BAR 11:01 and “Israel Enters Canaan—Following the Pottery Trail,” BAR 17:05.


See Avner Raban and Robert R. Stieglitz, “The Sea Peoples and Their Contributions to Civilization,” BAR 17:06. See also William H. Stiebing, Jr., “When Civilization Collapsed—Death of the Bronze Age” AO 04:03, and “Invasions of the Sea Peoples,” AO 04:03.


See “On a Mission from God” AO 02:03 (excerpt from James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Related to the Old Testament [Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969], pp. 25–29).



The only other example is a tower that has been found at Giloh—and that seems to support our case. See Amihai Mazar, “Iron Age I and II Towers at Giloh and the Israelite Settlement,” Israel Exploration Journal 40: 2–3 (1990), pp. 77–101.


Shardana appear in Egyptian and Ugaritic sources and probably in the Bible as well. See A. Loretz, “Les Sardanu et la fin d’Ugarit, a propos des documents d’Egypte, de Byblos et d’Ugarit relatif au Shardana,” in Le pays d’Ugarit autour 1200 av. J.-c., colloque international, Paris, 28 Juin-1 er Jouillet, 1993 (Ras Shamra XI), ed. M. Yon, M. Scznycer and P. Bordreuil (Paris, 1995), 126–135. In the same volume, see A. Kahl, “Les temaignage textuelle Egyptiennes sur les Shardana” (addendum to the Loretz article).


William F. Albright, “Contribution to the Historical Geography of Palestine,” Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 2–3 (1922–23), pp. 1–46; see also Albrecht Alt, “Syrien und Palaestina im Onomastikon des Amenope,” Schweizerische Theologische Umschau 20 (1950), pp. 58–71.


Albright, “Some Archaeological and Topographical Results of the Trip Through Palestine,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 11 (1923), pp. 8–9.


Benjamin Mazar, “Beth-She’arim, Gaba and Harosheth of the Gentiles,” Hebrew Union College Annual 24 (1952–1953), pp. 75–84.


Prose and poetry frequently appear together in the literature of the ancient Near East. For instance, the Israelite Song of the Sea (Exodus 15:1–21) is a celebratory Biblical poem that follows a prose description of the Israelites’ miraculous crossing of the Sea of Reeds (Exodus 13:17–14:30). See also the alternating prose and poetry text of “Hymn of Victory of Mer-ne-Ptah (The ‘Israel Stela’),” in James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Related to the Old Testament (ANET), (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969), pp. 376–378.


Albright, Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan: A Historical Analysis of Two Contrasting Faiths, (London: Athlone, 1968), p. 216, n. 217.


Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli, “Seisara,” La Parolla del Passato 166 (1976), pp. 123–128. See also G. Garbini, “Il Cantico di Debora,” La Parolla del Passato 178 (1978), pp. 5–31.


Albright, Gods of Canaan, p. 216, n. 217.


Benjamin Mazar, “Gaba and Harosheth of the Gentiles,” in Cities and Districts in Eretz-Israel (in Hebrew) (Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 1975), pp. 110–121.


Robert Drews, The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe ca. 1200 B.C. (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1993), pp. 48–76.


Pritchard, “The Asiatic Campaigns of Thut-mose III—The First Campaign: The Battle of Megiddo,” in ANET, p. 235.


Since 1996, other settlements with Sardinian architecture have been discovered in the southern Carmel range, some 15 miles north-northwest of el-Ahwat. See Adam Zertal, “The ‘Corridor Builders’ of Central Israel: Evidence for the Settlement of the ‘Northern Sea Peoples,’” in Defensive Settlements of the Aegean and the Eastern Mediterranean After c. 1200 B.C., ed. Vassos Karageorghis and Christine E. Morris (Dublin/Nicosia: Trinity College Dublin/Anastasios G. Leventis Foundation, 2001), pp. 215–232. I believe we can now speak of a Shardana territory, parallel to a Sikulu territory, centered at Dor.