For a brief overview, see Oded Borowski, Agriculture in Iron Age Israel (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1987); Zev Herzog, “The Storehouses,” in Beer-Sheva I, ed. Yohanan Aharoni (Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv Univ./Inst. of Archaeology, 1973), pp. 23–30; Yigal Shiloh, “The Four-Room House. Its Situation and Function in the Israelite City,” Israel Exploration Journal 20 (1970), pp. 180–190.


Herzog, “The Storehouses,” p. 25; Shiloh, “The Four-Room House,” pp. 183–184.


R.S. Lamon and G.M. Shipton, Megiddo 1 (Chicago: Oriental Institute Publications, 1939), p. 39.


Lamon and Shipton, Megiddo 1, p. 35.


Joseph Callaway and Lawrence E. Stager have both suggested that the archaeological evidence from the 12th/11th centuries B.C. may reflect a cultural expansion from the coastal plain eastward into the hill country. The appearance of tripartite pillared buildings first on the coast may support that thesis.


See W. Kleiss, “Ausgrabungen in der Urartaischen Festung Bastam (Rusahinili) 1969,” Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran (AMI) N.F. III (1970), pp. 7–65; “Ausgrabungen … 1970,” AMI N.F. III (1972), pp. 7–68; “Die urartaischen Anlagen in Bastam nach der Grabung 1975,” AMI N.F. 7 (1974), pp. 107–114. It has also been suggested that the design may have originated in Egypt, although the evidence is rather weak. See also John S. Holladay, “The Stables of Ancient Israel,” in The Archaeology of Jordan and Other Studies, ed. L.T. Geraty and L.G. Herr (Berrien Springs, Ml: Andrews University Press, 1986), p. 111. Some very good scholars have recently concurred with Holladay’s conclusions—for example, Stager, “Archaeology of the Family in Ancient Israel,” Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research (BASOR) 260 (1985), pp. 1–35.


Frederick J. Bliss, A Mound of Many Cities (London: Palestine Exploration Fund, 1894), pp. 95–96.


James B. Pritchard, “The Megiddo Stables: A Reassessment,” in Essays in Honor of Nelson Glueck, Near Eastern Archaeology in the Twentieth Century, ed. James A. Sanders (Garden City: Doubleday, 1970), p. 274.


Volkmar Fritz, “Bestimmung und Herkunft des Pfeilerhauses in Israel,” Zeitschrift des deutschen Palästina-Vereins 93 (1977), pp. 30–45.


See, for example, A Badawy, A History of Egyptian Architecture (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1966), pp. 198–230; Ramsay MacMullen, Soldier and Civilian in the Later Roman Empire (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963). See also, Col. George Grogham, Army Life on the Western Frontier (Norman, OK: Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1958).


Ernst Sellin, Tell Ta’annak (Vienna: Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1904), p. 104.


P.L.O. Guy, New Light from Armageddon (Chicago: Oriental Institute Communications, 1931), p. 37.


During those years the function of the buildings was rarely called into question, although their date was seriously debated. See J.W. Crowfoot, “Megiddo A Review,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 1940, pp. 268–276.


Reported by Herzog, “The Storehouses,” pp. 23–30.


Herzog, “Storehouses,” pp. 23–30.


Pritchard, “The Megiddo Stables.”


Yigael Yadin, “The Megiddo Stables,” in Magnalia Dei: The Mighty Acts of God, ed. F.M. Cross, W.E. Lemke and P.D. Miller (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976), pp. 249–252. For a summary of this debate, see “Megiddo Stables or Storehouses?” BAR 02:03.


Holladay, “The Stables of Ancient Israel,” p. 11.


Larry G. Herr, “Tripartite Pillared Buildings and the Market Place in Iron Age Palestine,” BASOR 272 (1988), pp. 47–67.


Holladay, “The Stables,” p. 109, n. 5.


Holladay, “The Stables,” p. 123.


As Herr has pointed out; see “Tripartite Pillared Buildings,” p. 55.


Herr, “Tripartite Pillared Buildings,” p. 56.


Holladay, “The Stables,” p. 155.


Holladay, “The Stables,” p. 158.


Holladay, “The Stables, p. 158.


There is a vast body of literature on the subject of grain storage practices. One of the better works, and a text that I rely upon heavily, is Storage of Cereal Grains and Their Products, 2nd ed., J. Anderson and A. Alcock (Minneapolis, MN: Jones Press, 1969).


These categories are taken from Holladay, “The Stables of Ancient Israel,” in order to show that a different conclusion may be drawn based upon similar data.


See H.J. Barre, “Country Storage of Grain,” in Storage of Cereal Grains, pp. 334–335.


William F. Albright, “The Excavations of Tell Beit Mirsim III: The Iron Age,” Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 21–22 (New Haven: ASOR, 1943), p. 24.


Barre, “Country Storage of Grain,” p. 335 and fig. 12.


G. Rickman, Roman Granaries and Store Buildings (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1971), p. 234.


See R.E. Hamilton, C.J. Lynde, and R.K. Larmour, “Flour Storage in Bulk,” in Storage of Cereal Grains, p. 443.


See L.V. Barton, “Effect of Different Storage Conditions on the Germination of Seeds of Cinchona Ledgeriana Moens.,” Contributions to the Boyce Thompson Institute 15 (1947), pp. 1–10.


Barre, “Country Storage of Grain,” p. 293–297.


Rickman, Roman Granaries and Store Buildings, pp. 293–297.


This practice is known as opus signinum. An example of this flooring method can be found in the construction of the Grandi Horrea of Ostia. See G. Calza, “Gli horrea tra il tevere e el decumano, nel centro di Ostia antica,” Notzie degli Scavi di Antichita (1921), p. 371.


The storehouses at Masada, Ostia and Rome are primary examples of the standard rectangular granary width.


Herr’s argument that storehouses should be located in non-public areas because of security reasons is weak (p. 53). Even a cursory glance at ancient urban planning in Rome, Ostia, Egypt and elsewhere indicates that many storehouses were located in public areas. See Rickman, Roman Granaries and Store Buildings


Stager, “The Archaeology of the Family,” pp. 1–35, points out that the stables at the post-lron Age site of Kurnub support the belief that these basins served as mangers. Abraham Negev, the excavator of Kurnub, describes the basins in the stables: “The western and eastern walls of the central hall contain doors and four ‘arched windows.’ Mangers built into the sills of the ‘windows’ indicate that the elongated rooms served as stables.” See “Kurnub,” in Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, ed. M. Avi-Yonah and E. Stern (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1977), vol. 3, pp. 722–735.