(San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1993).


See Helmut Koester and Stephen J. Patterson, “The Gospel of Thomas—Does it Contain Authentic Sayings of Jesus?” BR 06:02.


In Jewish tradition, Wisdom is frequently personified as a feminine figure who dwells with God in heaven. In Wisdom literature, she is sometimes depicted as descending to earth to speak her words of wisdom; sometimes she simply sends her spirit into prophets deemed worthy. So, for example, in the Wisdom of Solomon 7:27 we read: “in every generation [Wisdom] passes into holy souls and makes them friends of God and prophets.”


Q passages are conventionally cited using Luke’s chapter and verse notations, thus Q 4:4 = Luke 4:4.