1. Eli Shukrun, “Did Herod Build the Foundations of the Western Wall?” in Eyal Meiron, ed., City of David Studies of Ancient Jerusalem: The Thirteenth Annual Conference (Jerusalem: Megalim, 2012), pp. 14*-26*.

2. Orit Peleg-Barkat, The Temple Mount Excavations in Jerusalem, 1968-1978, Directed by Benjamin Mazar, Final Reports, vol. V, Herodian Architectural Decoration and King Herod’s Royal Portico. Qedem series 57 (Jerusalem: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2017). I am grateful to Dr. Eilat Mazar, head of the Publication Project of the Temple Mount Excavations and granddaughter of Benjamin Mazar, who enabled and encouraged me to study the architectural pieces from her grandfather’s excavations as the focal point of my dissertation. My sincere gratitude goes to Professor Ronny Reich, Dr. Yuval Baruch, and Yaakov Bilig, who allowed me to study the relevant finds from the Israel Antiquities Authority’s excavations at the site, as well. Some of the fragments were already published in Yuval Baruch and Ronny Reich, “Excavations Near the Triple Gate of the Temple Mount, Jerusalem,” ‘Atiqot 85 (2016), pp. 37-95.

3. According to Josephus, the “ceiling of the middle aisle was raised to a greater height, and the front wall was cut at either end into architraves with columns built into it, and all of it was polished” (Jewish Antiquities 15.416). The term προμɛτϖπɩδίον τοίχον, translated by Ralph Marcus as the “front wall,” literally means “the wall in front or on the forehead.” It seems that this description refers to the nave wall that rose above the ceiling of the side aisles. It seems that Josephus’s polished wall means a wall built with dressed ashlars, and the columns built within the wall are probably the pilasters mentioned above. Even though Josephus does not mention windows on this floor, they were needed to provide light into the building, and therefore their existence is probable.

4. This was already suggested by Gideon Foerster in 1976 in “Art and Architecture in Palestine,” in Shmuel Safrai and Menachem Stern, eds., The Jewish People in the First Century, vol. 2: Historical Geography, Political History, Social, Cultural and Religious Life and Institutions (Assen: Fortress Press, 1976), pp. 971-1006.