Footnotes

1.

See Bernard F. Batto, “Red Sea or Reed Sea?” BAR 10:04.

2.

A reference to Numbers 21 and Deuteronomy 1–2, in which Moses conquered the Transjordanian kingdoms of Sihon and Og.

3.

On Tamar, see Shlomith Yaron, “Three Cases of Sperm-Stealing,” BR 17:01.

4.

The Deuteronomic History includes the books of Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings.

5.

See Janet Gaines, “How Bad Was Jezebel?&rd BR 16:05.

Endnotes

1.

I use Canaanite in this context formulaically, since a variety of terms, sometimes occurring singly, sometimes in varying combinations, is employed to signify the inhabitants of the promised land. (See Genesis 10:15–18, 15:16, 18–21.)

2.

Both Jewish and Christian interpreters have famously attempted to sanitize this story by seeing Rahab’s establishment as an inn and Rahab as the innkeeper. See, for example, Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 5.1.2.

3.

Other sanitized translations include: “Produce the men who came to you and entered your house” (Jewish Publication Society); “Bring forth the men that have come to you, who entered your house” (Revised Standard Version); and “Bring out the men who came to you and entered your house” (New International Version).

4.

Stanley Walters made this suggestion in an unpublished lecture.

5.

I am indebted to Lawrence Stager and Stanley Walters for this insight. See Frank Anthony Spina, “Rahab,” in the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 4 vols., ed. Geoffrey Bromiley (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1988), vol. 4, pp. 33–34.

6.

Note the summary statement in Joshua 11:16–23. In the remainder of the book, there is a summary of the land taken and the kings defeated (Joshua 12), lists of the allotments of territory to various Israelite units and cities dedicated for special reasons or special personnel (12–21), a narrative featuring the conflict over the building of an altar by the Transjordanian Israelites (22), and, finally, the presentation of Joshua’s final sermons to Israel, including the narration’s summaries (23–24).

7.

See Isaiah 23:17; Jeremiah 2:20–25, 3:1, 6, 8; Ezekiel 6:9, 16:15, 16, 17, 26, 28, 20:30, 23:3, 5, 11, 19, 29, 30, 43–44; Hosea 1:2, 2:4, 5, 7, 3:3, 4:10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 5:3, 9:1.

8.

The exception is the Gibeonite episode (Joshua 9:18–19), which functions in parallel ways to the Rahab episode. In both cases, “Canaanite” outsiders become part of Israel, the former by expression of faith and the latter by a ruse.

9.

In all of Joshua, the only other pedigree this compelling belongs to Manasseh’s great-great-grandson Zelophehad (Joshua 17:3).

10.

This article, in a slightly different version, will constitute one of the chapters in a book I am writing, provisionally entitled The Faith of the Outsider. Each of the chapters treats a story in which a non-Israelite either becomes an Israelite (religiously speaking) or behaves in an Israelite manner. These stories demonstrate the complex and highly nuanced understanding of Israel’s divine election in the Hebrew Bible. The six stories are: Esau (Genesis 25–36); Tamar and Judah (Genesis 38); Rahab and Achan (Joshua 2; 7); Naaman (2 Kings 5); Jonah (Jonah); and Ruth (Ruth).