*See Ronald S. Hendel, “When the Sons of God Cavorted with the Daughters of Men,” Bible Review 03:02.



Xenophon Hellenica 3.1.6. See D.S. Potter, “Pergamum,” Anchor Bible Dictionary Vol. V (1992), pp. 228–230, esp. p. 229.


Wolfgang Radt, “Recent Research in and about Pergamon: A Survey (ca. 1987–1997),” in Helmut Koester, ed., Pergamon, Citadel of the Gods: Archaeological Record, Literary Description, and Religious Development (Harvard Theological Studies; Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 1998), pp. 1–40, esp. p. 22.


Volker Kästner, “The Architecture of the Great Altar of Pergamon,” in Koester, ed., Pergamon, pp. 137–161, esp. p. 140. Debate continues, however, about whether the construction of the altar was begun in the early, middle or late part of his reign (Radt, “Recent Research in and about Pergamon,” pp. 20–22; Kästner, “Architecture of the Great Altar,” pp. 140–141). The “middle” dating is the most likely, that is, in the 170s B.C.E., a peaceful decade following upon Eumenes II’s victories over the Celts (Gauls) (Kästner, “Architecture of the Great Altar,” p. 140).


Kästner, “Architecture of the Great Altar,” p. 141.


On the reign of Attalus III, see Potter, “Pergamum,” p. 229. Fränkel believed that the inscription with the decree honoring Attalus originated in Elaia, a city on the boundary of Mysia and Lydia, perhaps because it was found there. The inscription, however, probably originated in Pergamon; see Adela Yarbro Collins, “Pergamon in Early Christian Literature,” in Koester, ed., Pergamon, pp. 163–184, esp. pp. 173–174, note 38.


See Potter, “Pergamum,” pp. 229–230; Radt, “Recent Research,” p. 10.


See Collins, “Pergamon in Early Christian Literature,” p. 172.


See George M.A. Hanfmann, “Giants,” Oxford Classical Dictionary (3rd ed., 1999), pp. 636–637. See also Adela Yarbro Collins, “Pergamon in Early Christian Literature,” pp. 117, 180–181.


John Day, “Baal (deity),” Anchor Bible Dictionary Vol. I (1992), pp. 545–549, esp. p. 545.


Martin J. Mulder, “God of Fortresses,” in Karel van der Toorn et al., eds., Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (Leiden: Brill, 1995), p. 700.


See Geo Widengren, “Psalm 110 und das sakrale Königtum in Israel,” in Peter A.H. Neumann, ed., Zur neueren Psalmenforschung (Wege der Forschung 192; Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1976), pp. 185–216, esp. 191.


Pausanias 5.13.7; for discussion, see Christopher P. Jones, “A Geographical Setting for the Baucis and Philemon Legend (Ovid Metamorphoses 8.611–724),” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 96 (1994), pp. 203–223, plus Plates I–IV, esp. pp. 208, 211. Plate II is a drawing of the structure.


Steven Friesen, Twice Neokoros: Ephesus, Asia and the Cult of the Flavian Imperial Family (Archaeological Resources for New Testament Studies; Leiden: Brill, 1993), p. 119.


Irenaeus, Refutation of Gnosis Falsely So Called (= Adversus Haereses) 5.30.3.


The dragon is said to be “fiery red.” This description may derive from the Old Testament, from Ugaritic or Akkadian texts but is most similar to the description of Seth in Egyptian tradition and of Seth-Typhon in Plutarch (On Isis and Osiris 22, 30–31).


Adela Yarbro Collins, The Combat Myth in the Book of Revelation (Harvard Dissertations in Religion 9; Missoula, MT: Scholars Press for the Harvard Theological Review, 1976; reprinted Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2001), pp. 176–190.