Although the upper part of the yod and most of the shin are damaged, they are nevertheless legible.


See H.O. Thompson and Fawzi Zayadine, in The Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 212 (1973).


Indicative letters are mem and kaf; kaf is formed by a vertical line with a triangle on its left. The letters bet and ayin are open on their upper parts.


Larry Herr, “The Servant of Baalis,” Biblical Archaeologist 48 (1985), pp. 169–172.


See Nahman Avigad and Benjamin Sass, Corpus of West Semitic Seals (Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Israel Exploration Society, Hebrew Univ., Institute of Archaeology, 1997), no. 965.


See James Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, 3rd ed. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969).


C.M. Bennett, ed., “Fouilles d’Umm el-Biara rapport préliminaire,” Revue biblique 73 (1966), pp. 372–403.


The mem has a large w-like head with a vertical line on its right; the two kafs are similar to the numeral four.


See “Barak’el son of ’Elishama‘,” in Avigad, “Another Group of West-Semitic Seals from the Hecht Collection,” Michmanim (1989), p. 15, no. 16; “Menahem son of Barak’el,” in Pierre Bordreuil, Catalogue des Sceaux Ouest-Sémitiques Inscrits (1986), p. 67, no. 75; “Batash Steward of Barak’el,” in M.F. Martin, “Six Palestinian Seals,” Revista degli Studi Orientali 39 (1964), pp. 203–210.