See Hershel Shanks, “Excavating in the Shadow of the Temple Mount,” BAR 12:06.


For a different view of where these temples stood, see Jerome Murphy-O’Connor’s forthcoming article in Bible Review (“Where Was the Capitol in Roman Jerusalem?” Bible Review, December 1997).



Benjamin Mazar, “The Excavations in the Old City of Jerusalem Near the Temple Mount—Second Preliminary Report, 1969–70 Seasons,” in Eretz-Israel (Hebrew) 10 (1971), pp. 1–33; Meir Ben-Dov, In the Shadow of the Temple: The Discovery of Ancient Jerusalem, trans. Ina Friedman (New York: Harper & Row, 1982), pp. 73–184. Recently Ronny Riech has been excavating along the western wall below Robinson’s Arch. The Herodian street was entirely covered by massive piles of the large stones that had once formed part of the wall of the Temple Mount. The area is now open to visitors; see Hershel Shanks, “Archaeological Hot Spots,” BAR 22:06.


Nahman Avigad, Discovering Jerusalem (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1983), pp. 95–204.


Flavius Josephus, The Jewish War 6.1.6–8.


Amos Kloner, “The Necropolis of Jerusalem in the Second Temple Period,” (Ph.D. diss., Hebrew University, 1980; Hebrew, with English summary, p. xix), pp. 271–272.


Hieronymus, Historia Ecclesiastica 4, 6.


Hieronymus, In Sophoniam, pl. T. 25, col. 1354.


A partial list: Selah Merrill, Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement 18 (1886), pp. 72–73; Charles Warren and Claude R. Conder, The Survey of Western Palestine (Jerusalem and London: Palestine Exploration Fund, 1884), p. 427; J.B. Hennessy, “Preliminary Report on Excavations at the Damascus Gate Jerusalem, 1964–1966,” Levant 2 (1970), p. 26, fig. 1; G.B. Sarfatti, “A Fragmentary Roman Inscription in the Turkish Wall of Jerusalem,” Israel Exploration Journal 25 (1975), p. 151.


One fragment was published in Ben-Dov, In the Shadow, p. 190. The other has not yet been published.


Josephus, Jewish War 7.1.1–2.


C.N. Johns, “The Citadel, Jerusalem—A Summary of Work Since 1934,” Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities in Palestine 14 (1950), pp. 121–190; Ruth Amiran and Avraham Eitan, “Excavations in the Courtyard of the Citadel, Jerusalem, 1968–1969,” Israel Exploration Journal 20 (1970), pp. 9–17; Hillel Geva, “Excavations at the Citadel of Jerusalem, 1976–1980,” in Ancient Jerusalem Revealed, ed. Geva (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1994), pp. 156–167; Renée Sivan and Giora Solar, “Excavations in the Jerusalem Citadel, 1980–1988,” in Geva Ancient Jerusalem Revealed, pp. 168–176.


Geva, “Excavations,” pp. 161–163.


Johns, “Citadel,” pp. 152–153, figs. 17, 23; Geva, “Excavations,” p. 163.


Yohanan Aharoni et al., Excavations at Ramat Rahel: Seasons 1959–1960 (Rome: Universitá degli studi, Centro di studi semitici, 1962), pp. 4–26; M. Provera in “Una Verillatio della Legione X. Fretense a cemisan,” La Terra Santa (1976), pp. 363–370; Sylvester J. Saller, Excavations at Bethany (1949–1953), Publications of the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum 12 (Jerusalem: Franciscan Press, 1957), p. 324, pl. 130a; Gershon Edelstein, “‘En Ya’el—1987,” in Excavation and Surveys in Israel, vols. 7–8 (Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority, 1988–1989), pp. 54–57. For more details on the Tenth Legion impression, see Dan Barag, “Brick Stamp-Impressions of the Legio X Fretensis,” Bonner Jahrbücher 167 (1967), pp. 244–267.


Benny Arubas and Haim Goldfus, “The Kilnworks of the Tenth Legion Fretensis,” in The Roman and Byzantine Near East: Some Recent Archaeological Research, ed. J.H. Humpherey, Journal of Roman Archaeology, supp. ser. 14 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1995), pp. 95–107.


For more details, see Geva, “The Camp of the Tenth Legion in Jerusalem: An Archaeological Reconsideration,” Israel Exploration Journal 34 (1984), pp. 239–254.


This represents some change of position on my part. Cf. Geva, “Tenth Legion,” p. 248.


Donald T. Ariel, “A Survey of Coin Finds in Jerusalem Until the End of the Byzantine Period,” Liber Annuus Studii Biblici Franciscani 32 (1981), pp. 292–293.


Barag, “A Note on the Geographical Distribution of Bar-Kokhba Coins,” Israel Numismatic Journal 4 (1980), pp. 30–33.


Avigad, Discovering Jerusalem, pp. 211–230.


R. Harris, “Hadrian’s Decree of Expulsion of the Jews from Jerusalem,” Harvard Theological Review 19 (1926), pp. 199–206.


The Roman camp at Dura-Europos was founded in the early third century C.E. and housed detachments of several legions. The excavations did not identify the camp’s assumed separate wall. Large quantities of inscriptions and other material remains were found, mainly in the praetorium; C. Hopkins and H.T. Rowell, “The Praetorium,” in M. Rostovzeff et al., The Excavations at Dura-Europos 5 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1934), pp. 201–234.


The Roman camp at Palmyra was founded by Diocletian in the late third century C.E. The camp was located in the populated western part of the city and surrounded by a defense wall. A large variety of material finds was revealed in excavations at the site; Kazimierz Michalowski, Fouilles Polonaises, vols. 1–4 (Warsaw: Panstwowe Wydawn. Naukowe, 1960–1966).