See Itzhaq Beit-Arieh, “Fifteen Years in Sinai,” BAR 10:04.


Apparently, Professor Anati sees a continuity from Early Bronze II (roughly 2900 to 2650 B.C.) to Middle Bronze I (roughly 2200 to 1950 B.C.) in the Sinai and Negev. In this, Professor Anati follows the suggestion of Rudolph Cohen in “The Mysterious MB I People—Does the Exodus Tradition in the Bible Preserve the Memory of Their Entry Into Canaan?” BAR 09:04.


Other objects besides scarabs present problems for Velikovsky’s system. Mycenaean pottery is, as Velikovsky admitted, contemporaneous with the Egyptian 18th Dynasty that followed the Hyksos period. And the period after the Hyksos period was, in Palestine, the Israelite monarchy of the mid-ninth century B.C., according to Velikovsky. If Velikovsky were correct, Mycenaean pottery should be found in Palestine in Iron II levels of the mid-ninth century. But, in fact, it is found in Late Bronze levels, beneath the Iron Age levels, preceding the Iron Age II levels by about 300 years.


Note that Courville anticipated Anati in placing the Exodus at the end of the Early Bronze Age. Anati, however, accepts the G.A.D. for the end of the Early Bronze Age, so he must move the Exodus back to the third millennium B.C.



Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1950).


Velikovsky, Ages in Chaos (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1952), p. v.


Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, pp. 172–175.


Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, pp. 48–58.


Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, pp. 58–76.


Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, pp. 76–90.


Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, pp. 91–104, 183–187.


Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, pp. 126–138.


Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, pp. 39–46.


Velikovsky, Ages in Chaos, pp. 12–47.


See John A. Wilson’s translation of the “Admonitions of Ipuwer” in James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (ANET), 2nd ed. (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1955), pp. 441–444.


See, for example, Yohanan Aharoni and Michael Avi-Yonah, The Macmillan Bible Atlas (New York Macmillan, 1968), pp. 40–43; or Aharoni, “The Israelite Occupation of Canaan,” BAR 08:03.


Velikovsky, Ages in Chaos, pp. 56–63.


Velikovsky, Ages in Chaos pp. 103–141.


Velikovsky, Ages in Chaos, pp. 223–340.


For relatively recent assessments of the evidence for a c. 1450 B.C. date for the Exodus, see Siegfried Horn, “What We Don’t Know About Moses and the Exodus,” BAR 03:02; and John Bimson, Redating the Exodus and Conquest (Sheffield: University of Sheffield, 1978), pp. 81–111.


See Jorgen Alexander Knudtzon et al., Die El-Amarna-Tafeln, 2 vols. (Leipzig J. C. Hinrichs, 1908, 1915). Hereafter numbers preceded by EA refer to the listings for the Amarna texts in this volume. Samuel A. B. Mercer prepared an edition of the Amarna letters with an English translation (The Tell el-Amarna Tablets [Toronto, 1939]), but it contains errors not in Knudtzon’s edition. For English translation of selected texts, see ANET, pp. 483–490, and A. Leo Oppenheim, Letters from Mesopotamia (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967), pp. 113–116, 119–134.


Velikovsky, Ages in Chaos, p. 233.


Velikovsky states that the name in the letters was read originally as Ebed-Tov (“Good Servant” in Hebrew) and that this reading is probably correct (Ages in Chaos, p. 235). But while the first part of the name is written with the ideograph for “servant” or “slave” (which would be read abdu in Akkadian or ’ebed in Hebrew), the name of the goddess Hepa is consistently spelled out syllabically, He-pa. The sign he can be used as an ideograph for “good,” but then the pa (or ba) at the end would have to be taken as a determinative indicating an accusative ending for the word written ideographically. This is linguistically unacceptable. The name of the goddess Hepa has now been found in many other texts, and the reading and meaning of the name Abdu-Hepa in the Amarna letters is almost universally recognized among Assyriologists.


Velikovsky, Ages in Chaos, p. 321.


ANET, p. 280.


ANET, pp. 276, 280.


EA, 137.


ANET. p. 279.


See, for example, EA, 280.


John Bimson, “Can There Be a Revised Chronology Without a Revised Stratigraphy?” Ages in Chaos? (Proceedings of the Residential Weekend Conference, Glasgow, April 1978) Society for Interdisciplinary Studies Review, Vol. 6, Nos. 1–3 (1982), p. 16.


The terminology and divisions of the Palestinian Iron Age are not agreed upon by all archaeologists. The G.A.D.s on the chart are those in Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land (EAEHL), Avi-Yonah, ed. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1975).


Donovan A. Courville, The Exodus Problem and Its Ramifications (Loma Linda, California: Challenge Books, 1971), Vol. 2, p. 196.


Kathleen Kenyon, Digging Up Jericho, (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1957), pp. 212–255, 260–263; “Jericho” in Archaeology and Old Testament Study, D. Winton Thomas, ed. (London: Oxford University Press, 1967), pp. 269–273.


Peter R. Ackroyd, “Samaria,” in Thomas, Archaeology and Old Testament, pp. 343–344. Nahman Avigad, “Samaria,” EAEHL, Vol. IV, p. 1041.


Bimson, “Can There Be a Revised Chronology,” pp. 21–22.


Bimson, “Can There Be a Revised Chronology,” p. 22.


Bimson, “Can There Be a Revised Chronology,” p. 22.


Yigael Yadin, Hazor: The Rediscovery of a Great Citadel of the Bible (New York: Random House, 1975), pp. 252, 259–264; “Hazor,” EAEHL, Vol. II, p. 485.


Dibon is mentioned in the inscription a number of times. See William F. Albright’s translation in ANET, pp. 320–321.


Nelson Glueck, “Transjordan,” in Thomas, Archaeology and Old Testament, pp. 447–448. A. D. Tushingham, “Dibon,” EAEHL, Vol. I, p. 332.


Glueck, “Transjordan,” pp. 433–450.


Aharoni, “Arad,” EAEHL, Vol. I, pp. 75–89. Beersheba, another important site in the Negev, was also unoccupied during the Middle and Late Bronze Ages. See Aharoni, “Beersheba, Tel,” EAEHL, Vol. I, pp. 160–168 or Ze’ev Herzog, “Beer-Sheba of the Patriarchs,” BAR 06:06.


See Frank H. Stubbings, Mycenaean Pottery from the Levant (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951).


Vases made to celebrate the re-inauguration of the Panathenaic Games in Athens in the 560s B.C. provide a fixed date for tracing the development of sixth-century pottery styles. See John Boardman, The Greeks Overseas (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1964), pp. 29–30. For the method of determining absolute dates according to the Common Era (B.C./A.D.) from the data given in ancient Greek texts, see Elias Joseph Bickerman, Chronology of the Ancient World, (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1968), pp. 80–86.


For a discussion of post-Mycenaean pottery and archaeological deposits in Greece, see Vincent Robin d’Arba Desborough, The Greek Dark Ages (London: Ernest Benn, 1972).


Boardman, The Greeks Overseas, pp. 178–184, 187–189.


Boardman, The Greeks Overseas, pp. 61–70. Pritchard et al., Sarepta: A Preliminary Report on the Iron Age (Philadelphia: The University Museum, 1975), pp. 67–70, 94–96. Leonard Woolley, A Forgotten Kingdom (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1953), pp. 172, 173, plates 19b and 20b.


This article is to be published in Civilization and Catastrophe: The Role of Extreme Natural Events in Archaeology, edited by Elizabeth Chesley Baity et al.


Carl Sagan makes the same point. See “A Scientist Looks at Velikovsky’s Worlds in Collision,” BAR 06:01.


Study of the Biblical text itself raises questions about the way the material was handed down and about the historicity of some of the early accounts. For example, chapters 21 and 33 in Numbers contain different traditions about the route the Israelites followed from Mt. Hor into Canaan, and Joshua 12 lists as conquered cities places that Judges 1 states were not conquered, such as Ta’anach and Megiddo. See John L. McKenzie, The World of the Judges (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1966), pp. 71–82 and Samuel Yeivin, The Israelite Conquest of Canaan (Istanbul: Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Institut, 1971), pp. 5–20.