Mark 1:10. On this image see my articles “Heavens Torn Open—Mark’s Powerful Metaphor Explained,” BR 07:04, and “The Heavenly Veil Torn: Mark’s Cosmic Inclusio,” Journal of Biblical Literature 110.1 (Spring, 1991).



A Mithraic temple was found at Caesarea during excavations in 1973–1974. See Robert J. Bull, “The Mithraeum at Caesarea Maritima,” in Etudes mithriaques (Leiden: Brill, 1978), pp. 75–89; Robert J. Bull, “Caesarea Maritima—The Search for Herod’s City,” BAR 08:03; Robert S. Bull, letter, “Finding the Mithraeum,” BAR 09:04.


Complete documentation and references for this article will be found in my book The Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries: Cosmology and Salvation in the Ancient World (New York and Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1989; slightly revised paperback edition, 1991).


Although the usual symbol for Aquarius in antiquity was a man carrying a vessel, it was sometimes symbolized by the vessel alone; for a convenient example see the Roman engraved gem illustrated in E.R. Goodenough, Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period, edited and abridged by Jacob Neusner (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1988), fig. 17.


For the following discussion, complete references and documentation will be found in my article “Mithras and the Hypercosmic Sun,” in John Hinnells, ed., Studies on Mithraism (Rome: “L’Erma” di Bretschneider, forthcoming).


Translated by R. Hackforth, Plato’s Phaedrus (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1952), p. 78.