The name Septuagint, from the Greek for 70, and its abbreviation, LXX, refer to the legendary 72 Jewish translators brought to Egypt in the third century B.C.E. to translate the Torah.



See D. Efroymsen, “The Patristic Connection,” in Antisemitism and the Foundations of Christianity, ed. Alan Davies (New York: Paulist Press, 1979), pp. 98–117; and John Gager, The Origins of Anti-Semitism (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1983), pp. . 160–167.


See Jack P. Lewis, “What Do We Mean by Jabneh?” Journal of Bible and Religion 32, pp. 125–132.


See James A. Sanders, “The Stabilization of the Tanak,” in History of Biblical Interpretation, ed. Alan Hauser et al. (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, forthcoming).


Yigael Yadin, The Temple Scroll, 3 vols. (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society and Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University, 1983).


Sanders, “Text and Canon: Old Testament and New,” in Mélanges Dominique Barthélemy: Études bibliques offertes á l’occasion de son 60e anniversaire, ed. Pierre Casetti, Othmar Keel and Adrian Schenker, Orbis biblicus et orientalis 38 (Fribourg: Editions Universitaires, 1981).


See the conclusions of Peter Flint in A Gift of God in Due Season: Essays in Honor of James A. Sanders, ed. R. Weis and D. Carr (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996), pp. 65–83; and The Dead Sea Psalms Scroll and the Book of Psalms (Leiden: Brill, 1997).


See Michael E. Stone, “Judaism at the Time of Christ,” Scientific American 288 (January 1973), pp. 80–87, and Scriptures, Sects, and Visions (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1980). Anthony Saldarini and Moshe Weinfeld have both shown how critical rabbinic Judaism was of the Pharisees; see Saldarini, “Understanding Matthew’s Vitriol,” BR 13:02; and Weinfeld, “The Jewish Roots of Matthew’s Vitriol,” BR 13:05.


See Bruce Chilton and Jacob Neusner, Judaism in the New Testament (London: Routledge, 1995), p. xviii.


George Foot Moore, Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era, 3 vols. (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1927), p. 307.


See Shemaryahu Talmon, “Oral Tradition and Written Transmission, or the Heard and the Seen Word in Judaism of the Second Temple Period,” in Jesus and the Oral Gospel Tradition, ed. Henry Wansbrough (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1991), pp. 121–158, and “Die Gemeinde des Erneuerten Bundes von Qumran Zwischen rabbinischen Judentum und Christentum,” in Zion-Ort der Begegnung, ed. Ferdinand Hahn et al. (Bodenheim: Athenaum Hain Hanstein, 1993), pp. 295–312.


This was already discerned by Karl Elliger in Studien zum Habakkuk-Kommentar vom Toten Meer (Tubingen: Mohr, 1953).