See Philippians 2:5–11—“Have this mind among yourselves, which you have in Christ Jesus, who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped, but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men. And being found in human form he humbled himself and became obedient unto death, even death on a cross. Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name which is above every name, that at the time of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth.…”


See 2 Corinthians 2:9—“For this is why I wrote, that I might test you and know whether you are obedient in everything.”



For the founding date, see Richard Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture, The Pelican History of Art (Hammondsworth/Baltimore/Ringwood: Penguin Books, 1965), p. 138.


See Guiseppi Bovini, Ravenna, trans. by Robert Eric Wolf (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1971), p. 77. Although initially dedicated to Jesus Christ by the Arian king Theodoric, the church was subsequently renamed in the sixth century the Church of St. Martin and received its present name, Sant’Apollinare Nuovo, just after 850 C.E.


Arius, Letter to Eusebius of Nicodemia 2, in William G. Rusch, The Trinitarian Controversy, Sources of Early Christian Thought (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1980), p. 29.


For further references and readings on early Arianism, see Robert C. Gregg and Dennis E. Groh, “The Centrality of Soteriology in Early Arianism,” Anglican Theological Review 59 (1977), pp. 260–278; Early Arianism—A View of Salvation (Philadelphia and London: Fortress Press and S.C.M., 1981); Dennis E. Groh, “New Directions in Arian Research,” Anglican Theological Review 68 (1986), pp. 347–355; and “Arius, Arianism,” The Anchor Bible Dictionary, edited by David Noel Freedman (New York: Doubleday, 1992), vol. 1, pp. 384–386.


Epistle to Alexander 14.37.


Gregory of Nazianzus, Oration XVIII 17; quoted from H.M. Gwatkin, Studies of Arianism, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, UK: D. Bell, 1900), p. 46.


Athanasius, De Decretis 20, in Philip Schaff and Henry Wace, A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, second series, vol. 4, St. Athanasius: Select Letters and Works (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1956), p. 163.


Eusebius of Caesarea’s Letter to His Church, in Rusch, The Trinitarian Controversy, p. 54.


For why unchangeability was such a key issue for Christian theologians at this time, see my remarks in “The Religion of the Empire: Christianity from Constantine to the Arab Conquest,” in Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism—A Parallel History of Their Origins and Early Development, ed. by Hershel Shanks (Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1992).


The present text of the Creed of Constantinople was preserved and transmitted to us by the Council of Chalcedon (451 C.E.) and can be found in Richard A. Norris, Jr., The Christological Controversy, Sources of Christian Thought (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1980), p. 157. For scholarly discussions as to whether this creed actually derives from the Council of Constantinople, see Hanson, Search for the Christian Doctrine (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1988), pp. 812–815.


Concerning Christ as teacher and model in Germanic Arianism, and the importance of the untouched Arian Jesus cycle in Sant’Apollinare Nuovo for the “imitation” of Christ motif, cf. Sörries, Die Bilder der Orthodoxen im Kampf Gegen den Arianismus. Eine Apologie der orthodoxen Christologie und Trinitätslehre gegenüber der arianischen Häresie, dargestellt an den ravennatischen Mosaiken und Bildern des 6. Jahrhunderts (Frankfurt am Main/Bern: Peter Lang, 1983), pp. 67 and 87. The Jesus cycle definitely dates to Theodoric’s building of the church: Otto G. Von Simson, Sacred Art—Byzantine Art and Statecraft in Ravenna (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1987), p. 71.


Zeev Rubin, in “The Conversion of the Visigoths to Christianity,” Museum Helveticum 38 (1981), pp. 34–54, has sustained this date and reaffirmed E. A. Thompson’s picture of the social situation of the Goths at this juncture of history. Rubin’s position is reported in the text following this note. I am grateful to Gideon Bohak of Princeton University for this reference.


For the extent and progress of his program, see now Mark J. Johnson, “Toward a History of Theodoric’s Building Program,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 42 (1988), pp. 73–96.


Johnson, “Toward a History,” p. 85.


Sörries, Die Bilder der Orthodoxen, pp. 22–24, 57, 271.


Sörries, Die Bilder der Orthodoxen, p. 59.


Guiseppi Bovini, Ravena Felix (Ravenna: Edizioni A. Longo, 1957), p. 31. Though the Arian baptistery is not explicitly mentioned in the list of structures “reconciled” to the Catholic Church by Bishop Agnellus in 561 C.E., Sant’Apollinare Nuovo is, and clearly figures in the Orthodox damnatio: Reiner Sörries, Die Bilder der Orthodoxen, pp. 24, 57, 72.


cf. On the Incarnation of the Word, ca. 318 C.E.