Cuneiform is the system used to write Akkadian, the lingua franca of diplomatic correspondence in the second millennium B.C.E.


The statue and stelae had been moved from their original locations and set up in a room of one of Beth-Shean’s later temples.


A cartouche is a ring-shaped design enclosing an Egyptian royal name. Of the five throne names borne by each pharaoh, only the two most important, the Nomen and Prenomen, were written in cartouches. This pair of cartouches was often placed on statues and other monuments to identify them with the king.



James A. Weinstein, “The Egyptian Empire in Palestine: A Reassessment,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 241 (1981), pp. 1–28.


Mary W. Helms, Ulysses’ Sail: An Ethnographic Odyssey of Power, Knowledge, and Geographical Distance (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1988), pp. 137–144.


Martin Millett, The Romanization of Britain: An Essay in Archaeological Interpretation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).


Millett, Romanization, pp. 69–85, 91–99.


EA 289. The abbreviation EA refers to the numbering of the Amarna letters in J. A. Knudtzon, Die El-Amarna-Tafeln (Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs, 1915).


Frances W. James and Patrick E. McGovern, The Late Bronze Egyptian Garrison at Beth Shan: A Study of Levels VII and VIII (Philadelphia: Univ. Museum, 1993) and James, The Iron Age at Beth Shan: A Study of Levels VI–IV (Philadelphia: Univ. Museum, 1966).


Trude K. Dothan, “Deir el-Balah: The Final Campaign,” National Geographic Research 1 (1985) pp. 32–43.


EA 294. See n. 6.


J. Kaplan, “Jaffa’s History Revealed by the Spade,” Archaeology 17 (1964) pp. 270–276.


EA 289, 196. See n. 6.


Much of the scholarly confusion about resident governors seems to have arisen from efforts to correlate Akkadian titles with pharaonic officials. In particular, the occurrence of the Akkadian title “governor” in international correspondence like the Amarna letters has led some scholars to propose the existence of resident governors whose Egyptian title was either “overseer of northern lands” (see Hans Wolfgang Helck, Die Beziehungen Agyptens zu Vorderasien im. 3. und 2. Jahrtausend [Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1971], pp. 250–251) or “royal envoy.” See E. Edel, “Weitere Briefe aus der Heiratskorrespondenz Ramses’ II. KUB III 37 + KBo I 17 und KUB III 57, ” in Geschichte und Altes Testament, ed. G. Ebeling (Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 1953), p. 56. More recently, scholars have recognized that the use of Akkadian titles indicates only that the scribes were unaware of or indifferent to the officials’ Egyptian titles. (See Michel Valloggia, Recherche sur les “messagers” (wpwtyw) dans les sources Égyptienne profanes [Paris: Librairie Droz, 1976], p. 240; Donald Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times [Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992], p. 201.)


Redford, Egypt, p. 201.


William F. Albright, “A Prince of Taanach in the Fifteen Century B.C.,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 94 (1944) pp. 12–27.


Kurt Heinrich Sethe, Urkunden IV (18. Dynastie) (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs’sche, 1903–1958), p. 1508.


R.D. Whitehouse and J.B. Wilkins, “Greeks and Natives in South-east Italy: Approaches to the Archaeological Evidence,” pp. 102–126 in Centre and Periphery: Comparative Studies in Archaeology, ed. Timothy C. Champion (London: Unwin Hyman, 1989).


Tryggve N.D. Mettinger, Solomonic State Officials (Lund: Gleerup, 1971).