We know little of Mutnofret’s origins. She is called “king’s wife” but never “king’s daughter,” so her father was not a king. By contrast, Ahmose is called “king’s principal wife” and “king’s sister,” though she too is never called “king’s daughter.” This last fact was disregarded for a long time by Egyptologists, because it did not fit into their ideas relating to royal succession.



M. Gitton, “Le rôle des femmes dans le clergé d’Amon à la 18e dynastie,” Bulletin de la Société française d’Égyptologie 75 (1976), pp. 31–46.


Gay Robins, “The God’s Wife of Amun in the 18th Dynasty in Egypt,” in A. Cameron and A. Kuhrt, eds., Images of Women in Antiquity rev. ed. (London: Routledge, 1993), pp. 65–78.


For royal women in general, see Gay Robins, Women in Ancient Egypt (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993).


My thanks to John Baines for discussing the translation of Hatshepsut’s throne name with me.


Donald Redford, History and Chronology of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt: Seven Studies (Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1967), pp. 57–63.


Charles Nims, “The Date of the Dishonoring of Hatshepsut,” Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 93 (1960), pp. 97–100.


Peter Dorman, The Monuments of Senenmut (London and New York: Kegan Paul International, 1988), pp. 46–63.