The Hasmonean dynasty was created in the second century B.C.E., when the house of Mattathias the Maccabee began a struggle, ultimately successful, to establish a Jewish state in Palestine.


See Jodi Magness, “What Was Qumran? Not a Country Villa,” BAR 22:06.


A hypocaust is an ancient central heating system consisting of a space under the floor supported by small columns for the circulation of warm air.


A high-quality pottery of the Roman period, terra sigillata is distinctive for its shiny red slip.


In the first century C.E., locally produced fine ware is very common at sites around Judea, such as Jerusalem, Jericho and Masada. Imported fine ware from the western Mediterranean, however, is relatively rare. There was no imported and very little local fine ware found at Qumran.


See Stephen Goranson, “Qumran: A Hub of Scribal Activity?” BAR 20:05.


De Vaux did publish preliminary reports of his excavations in Revue biblique and in a volume that expanded on his lectures on the subject, Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1973). One volume containing photographs and a summary of his notes has been published recently by the École Biblique. See Jean-Baptiste Humbert and Alain Chambon, Fouilles de Khirbet Qumrân et de Aïn Feshkha, Novum Testamentum et Orbis Antiquus, Series Archaeologica 1 (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht; Fribourg: Éditions Universitaires, 1994).


Nabi Musa is located south of the Jerusalem-Jericho road at the edge of the Jordan Valley. Muslim pilgrims stopped here to venerate Moses, whose tomb was traditionally thought to be visible across the Jordan Valley, on Mt. Nebo. Later, Nabi Musa itself came to be known as the site of Moses’ tomb.


A mezuzah is a small parchment inscribed with a Biblical text known as the Shema and kept in a case affixed to the doorpost, in accordance with the Biblical commandment in Deuteronomy 6:8.



Ronny Reich, “Mikva’ot (Jewish Immersion Baths) in Eretz-Israel in the Second Temple Period and the Mishnah and Talmud Periods” (Ph.D. diss., Hebrew University, 1990) (in Hebrew).


Günter Garbrecht and Yehuda Peleg, “The Water Supply of the Desert Fortresses in the Jordan Valley,” Biblical Archaeologist 57:3 (1994), pp. 161–170.


For an English translation, see Yoram Tsafrir, “The Desert Fortresses of Judea in the Second Temple Period,” The Jerusalem Cathedra 2 (1982), pp. 120–145.


Norman Golb, Who Wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls? (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1995).


For the published version of Pauline Donceel-Voûte’s report at the New York conference, see Robert Donceel and Pauline Donceel-Voûte, “Archaeology of Qumran,” in Michael O. Wise et al., eds., Methods of Investigation of the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Khirbet Qumran Site: Present Realities and Future Prospects, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 722 (New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1994), pp. 1–38; see also Jodi Magness, “The Community at Qumran in Light of Its Pottery,” in Wise et al., Methods; and Hershel Shanks, “Blood on the Floor at New York Dead Sea Scroll Conference,” BAR 19:02.


See Donceel and Donceel-Voûte, “Archaeology of Qumran,” pp. 5–14; see also Donceel, “Qumran,” in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, ed. Eric M. Meyers (New York and Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1997), vol. 4, p. 395.


Michael Rostovtzeff, A Large Estate in Egypt in the Third Century B.C. (New York: Arno Press, 1979), p. 103.


David Amit, “Ritual Baths (Miqva’ot) From the Second Temple Period in the Hebron Mountains,” Judea and Samaria Research Studies 3 (1993), pp. 157–189 (in Hebrew).


A picture of this inkwell appears in Solomon H. Steckoll, “An Inkwell From Qumran,” Mada’ 13 (1969), pp. 260–261. See also Steckoll, “Investigations of the Inks Used in Writing the Dead Sea Scrolls,” Nature 220 (1968), pp. 91–98; and Y. Olenik, “Early Roman-Period Pottery Inkwells from Eretz-Yisrael,” Israel-People and Land 1 (1983–1984), pp. 55–66 (in Hebrew, with an English translation on pp. 10–11).


N.I. Khairy, “Inkwells of the Roman Period from Jordan,”Levant 12 (1980), pp. 155–163.


Eric M. Meyers, James F. Strange and Carol L. Meyers, “Preliminary Report on the 1980 Excavations at en-Nabratein, Israel,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 244 (1981), p. 21.


See Hartmut Stegemann, Die Essener, Qumran, Johannes der taüfer und Jesus (Freiburg: Herder, 1993), pp. 53–85.


See Donceel and Donceel-Voûte, “Archaeology of Qumran”; Donceel-Voûte, “Les ruines de Qumrân réinterprétées,” Archaeologia 298 (1994), pp. 24–35, and “‘Coenaculum’—La salle á l’étage du locus 30 à Khirbet Qumran sur la mer Morte,” Banquets d’Orient, Res Orientales 4 (1992), pp. 61–84; and Donceel, “Repris des travaux de publication des fouilles au Khirbet Qumrân,” Revue biblique (1992), pp. 557–573.


Jean-Baptiste Humbert, “L’Espace Sacré à Qumrân: Propositions pour l’archéologie,” Revue biblique 101–102 (1994), p. 161.


Donceel and Donceel-Voûte, “Archaeology of Qumran,” pp. 22–24.


Magen Broshi and Hanan Eshel, “How and Where Did the Qumranites Live?” in The Provo International Conference on the Dead Sea Scrolls: New Texts, Re-Formulated Issues, and Technological Innovations, ed. D.W. Parry and Eugene C. Ulrich (Leiden: Brill, 1997).


See Steckoll, “Preliminary Excavation Report in the Qumran Cemetery,” Revue de Qumran 6 (1968), pp. 323–344.


For a translation and an explanation of the role of the Manual of Discipline, see Geza Vermes, The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English (New York: Allen Lane/Penguin, 1997), pp. 26–48.


Josephus, The Jewish War 2.8.7.


Vermes, The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English, pp. 103–107.


Josephus, The Jewish War 2.8.13.