It was Wellhausen, with Karl Heinfrich Graf, who did much to delineate and date the four strands of the Pentateuch known as J.P.E and D. See the following articles in Bible Review: Joseph Blenkinsopp, “Julius Wellhausen,” and “The Documentary Hypothesis in Trouble,” Fall 1985; Victor Hurowitz, “P—Understanding the Priestly Source,” June 1996; Rolf Rendtorff, “What We Miss By Taking the Bible Apart,” February 1998.



Ivan Engnell, A Rigid Scrutiny: Critical Essays on the Old Testament, trans. and ed., John T. Willis, with the collaboration of Helmer Ringgren (Nashville: Vanderbilt Univ. Press, 1969), p. 35.


This article has been adapted from my paper, “Introduction to the Study of the History of the Religion of Israel,” in John Kaltner and Louis Stulman, eds., Inspired Speech: Prophecy in the Ancient near East, Essays in Honour of Herbert B. Huffmon (JSOT SS 378 London and New York: T&T Clark International, 2004), pp. 8–11. It is published here with the permission of the editors and T&T Clark.