A preliminary publication of the text by Puech is to appear in 1992 in the Revue de Qumran, vol. 15. we have not yet seen this publication.


A Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea Scrolls, prepared by Robert H. Eisenman and James M. Robinson (Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1991). In this collection the fragment is plate No. 1551, PAM 43.604. Its siglum is 4Q521.


Eisenman, “A Messianic Visions,” BAR 17:06. See also Eisenman and wise, The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered (Rockport, MA: Element Books, forthcoming).


For a recent discussion see S. Talmon, “Waiting for the Messiah at Qumran,” in J. Neusner, W. S. Green and E. S. Frerichs (eds.), Judaisms and Their Messiahs at the Turn of the Christian Era (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987) pp. 111–137.


James C. VanderKam, “The Dead Sea Scrolls and Christianity,” in Understanding the Dead Sea Scrolls, ed. Hershel Shanks (New York: Random House, 1992), p. 196.


As revealed already in J. T. Milik’s review of P. Wernberg-Miller, The Manual of Discipline Translated and Annotated (Leiden: Brill, 1957), Revue Biblique 67 (1960), pp. 410–416. Milik dates the text as the oldest by paleographical analysis.


The text appears on PAM 43.542. For convenient reference see Eisenman and Robinson, Facsimile Edition, #491.


For the text, PAM 43.236, see Eisenman and Robinson, Facsimile Edition #1272.


PAM 43.587 and 43.588; see Eisenman and Robinson, Facsimile Edition, #1534–1535.


This text is in Aramaic. Compare this description with the famous messianic description in the Testament of Levi, chapter 18.


One fragmentary line on another fragment of 4Q521 does speak of “its (apparently, the land’s) anointed ones.” In the context—a review of the history of the nation—we take this wording as a reference to the Prophets, who were often described in such terms (e.g. Psalm 105:15 and CD [Damascus Covenant] columns 2 and 6).


See Otto Betz, “Was John the Baptist an Essene?” BR 06:06.