The Midrash is the collection of post-biblical commentaries on the Bible, created by the rabbis in the first to eight centuries A.D.



See, inter alia, Samuel Terrien, “Toward a Biblical Theology of Womanhood,” Religion in Life 42 (1973), pp. 322–333; reprinted in Ruth T. Barnhouse and Urban T. Holmes, eds., Male and Female: Christian Approaches to Sexuality (Seabury Press, 1976), pp. 17–27; Phyllis Trible, God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1978); Frederick E. Greenspahn, “A Typology of Biblical Women,” Judaism 32 (1983), pp. 43–50; James G. Williams, Women Recounted: Narrative Thinking and the God of Israel (Sheffield: Almond Press, 1982); Elisabeth Schüssler Fiorenza, In Memory of Her: A Feminist Theological Reconstruction of Christian Origins (New York: Crossroad, 1983); and the recent collections edited by Mary Ann Tolbert (The Bible and Feminist Hermeneutics [Semeia 28, Scholars Press, 1983]); Letty M. Russell (Feminist Interpretation of the Bible [Philadelphia: Westminster Press]); Adela Yarbro Collins (Feminist Perspectives on Biblical Scholarship [Scholars Press, 1985]).


See, for example, Carol Meyers, “Procreation, Production, and Protection: Male-Female Balance in Early Israel,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 51 (1983), pp. 569–593.


On point of view and for a discussion of a number of biblical women, see Adele Berlin, Poetics and Interpretation of Biblical Narrative (Sheffield: Almond Press, 1983).


John Van Seters, Abraham in History and Tradition (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1975), p. 193, puts it nicely: “The son to be born to her will have a destiny that will be anything but submissive and his defiance will be her ultimate vindication.” Notice again, however, that the mother’s importance derives from her son.


Tanhuma, Par. Vayira 23.