See Meir Ben-Dov, “Found after 1400 Years—the Magnificent Nea,” BAR 03:04. The final publication report will appear in Hillel Geva and Oren Gutfeld, eds., Jewish Quarter Excavations in the Old City of Jerusalem, Conducted by Nahman Avigad 1969–1982, vol. 4 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society).



For a translation of Procopius’s De Aedifici 5:6, see John Wilkinson, Jerusalem Pilgrims before the Crusades, rev. ed. (Warminster: Aris and Phillips, 2002), pp. 124–128, and Procopius VII, H.B. Dewing, trans., Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1940), pp. 342–349. See also Yoram Tsafrir, “Procopius and the Nea Church in Jerusalem,” Antiquité Tardive 8, pp. 149–164; J.T. Milik, “La topographie de Jérusalem vers la fin de l’époque Byzantine,” Mélanges de l’Université Saint Joseph 37 (1960–1961), pp. 145–151, at pp. 146–147 and 150–151.


According to Cyril of Scythopolis, Vita Euthymii 71:18.


De Aedifici 5:6.


See Josephus, War 5.190 (cf. Antiquities 8.63; Ezra 3:7; 1 Esdras 4:48; 5:53). In the Jewish tradition of the targums (Aramaic translations of scripture) the temple is sometimes referred to as “Lebanon,” because of the cedars, see references in G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren and Heinz-Josef Fabry, eds., Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, vol. 7, trans. David E. Green (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995), p. 456.


Hagi Amitzur, “Justinian’s Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem,” in Marcel Poorthius and Chana Safrai, eds., The Centrality of Jerusalem: Historical Perspectives (The Hague: Kok Pharos, 1996), pp. 160–175. Amitzur has also suggested that the measurements indicate a building of 200 x 100 royal cubits, in keeping with Ezekiel’s prophecy of a future Temple (Ezekiel 40).


Michel Tarchnischvili, ed., Le Grand Lectionnaire de l’Église de Jérusalem (Ve–VIIIe siecle), Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium (Corpus SCO), vol. 18 (Louvain/Leuven: Secrétariat du Corpus SCO, 1959–1960), pp. 188–189; 204–205.


Nahman Avigad, “The Nea: Justinian’s Church of St. Mary, Mother of God, Discovered in the Old City of Jerusalem,” in Yoram Tsafrir, ed., Ancient Churches Revealed (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1963), p. 133; Dan Bahat, with Chaim Rubenstein, The Illustrated Atlas of Jerusalem (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990), pp. 74–75. Hillel Geva and Oren Gutfeld, Jewish Quarter Excavations in the Old City of Jerusalem Conducted by Nahman Avigad 1969–1982, IV: The Cardo and the Nea Church (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, forthcoming).


Charles Warren, Plans, Elevations, Sections &c., Shewing the Results of the Excavations at Jerusalem (Palestine Exploration Fund: London, 1884), pl. 26.


Nahman Avigad, “A Building Inscription of the Emperor Justinian and the ‘Nea’ in Jerusalem,” Israel Exploration Journal 27 (1977), pp. 145–161. Hegoumenos means “superior” of a monastery: an “abbot.”


Josephus, War 7.158–161. See Sean Kingsley, God’s Gold: The Quest for the Lost Temple Treasures of Jerusalem (New York: Harper Collins, 2007).


Procopius, History of the Wars 4:9, Procopius II, H.B. Dewing, trans., (Loeb Classical Library; Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1916).


Theophanes, Chronographia 93. The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor: Byzantine and Near Eastern History, A.D. 284–813, trans. and commentary Cyril Mango and Roger Scott, with Geoffrey Greatrex (Oxford: Clarendon, 1997). There is no modern edition or translation of Cedrenus. You find the Greek text in Charles A. Fabrot, ed., Patrologiae Graeca 121 (1857). (cf. Cedrenus, Compendium Historiarum).


Procopius, History of the Wars 4:9: 6–9.


English translation in Wilkinson, Jerusalem Pilgrims before the Crusades.


Gérard Garitte, ed., La Prise de Jérusalem par les Perses en 614 Corpus SCO 202–203 (Louvain/Leuven: Secrétariat de Corpus SCO, 1960): 78–79 (Georgian); 52 (Latin); Gérard Garitte, ed., Expugnationis Hierosolymae A.D. 614, 2 vols., Corpus SCO 340–341, 347–348; (Louvain/Leuven: Peeters, 1973–1974), 102 (Arabic); 68 (Latin).


As noted by Robert Schick, The Christian Communities of Palestine from Byzantine to Islamic Rule: A Historical and Archaeological Study, Studies in Late Antiquity and Early Islam 2 (Princeton: The Darwin Press, 1995), pp. 332–333.


That the church was not destroyed is also indicated in the occasionally garbled account of Adomnan, De Locis Sanctis 1:4 (c. 685), written up on the basis of a description from a visitor named Arculf.


English translation in Wilkinson, Jerusalem Pilgrims Before the Crusades.


Bartolomeo Pirone, ed., Eutichio, Patriarca di Alessandria (877–940), Studia Orientalia Christiana-Monographiae (Jerusalem: Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Franciscan Printing Press, 1987).


Annals 1: 216. The serious damage he refers to, however, was more likely to have been of a more recent date, i.e., from the time of the earthquake of 746, with the restorations of Charlemagne only partly restoring its former glory, or else damage that took place subsequent to the restorations.


Antiochus Strategos, The Capture of Jerusalem in A.D. 614, trans. from Georgian by Frederick C. Conybeare, English Historical Review 25 (1910), pp. 502–517, at p. 515, online at The numbers of the dead in the Nea are given differently here in the Georgian and Arabic manuscripts, either 600 (Georgian) or 290 (Arabic) (p. 515). The total number of Christians massacred in Jerusalem by the Persians, according to the body count made by the monk Thomas, was 66,509.