See Mendel Kaplan and Yigal Shiloh, “Digging in the City of David,” BAR 05:04.


In Biblical Archaeology Review see Rudolph Cohen, “The Fortresses King Solomon Built to Protect His Southern Border,” BAR 11:03; and Ze’ev Meshel, “Did Yahweh Have a Consort?” BAR 05:02.


For information on Tel Masos, see Biblical Archaeology Review articles: Aharon Kempinski, “Israelite Conquest or Settlement? New light from Tell Masos,” BAR 02:03; “Is Tel Masos an Amalekite Settlement?” BAR 07:03; letters, “Conquest or Settlement? Israelite or Canaanite?” in Queries & Comments BAR 03:01. (See also endnote 5.)


Aaron Demsky and Moshe Kochavi, “An Alphabet from the Days of the Judges,” BAR 04:03.



Anthony J. Phillips, “The Ecstatics’ Father,” in Words and Meanings, ed. Peter R. Ackroyd and Barnabas Lindars (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1968), pp. 137–152.


Alan R. Millard, “The Practice of Writing in Ancient Israel,” Biblical Archaeologist (BA) 35 (1972), pp. 195–198, pl. 26A.


Nahman Avigad, “The Epitaph of a Royal Steward from Siloam Village,” Israel Exploration Journal (IEJ) 3 (1953), pp. 137–152.


André Lemaire, Inscriptiones Hébraiques, I, Les Ostraca (Paris: du Cerf, 1977), p. 37; see also Ivan T. Kaufman, “The Samaria Ostraca: An Early Witness to Hebrew Writing,” BA 45 (1982), pp. 229–239.


For these two texts, see Lemaire, Inscriptiones Hébraiques, pp. 259ff., 275.


For example, Avigad, “Two Hebrew Inscriptions on Wine Jars,” IEJ 22 (1972), pp. 1–5.


See, e.g., Sean Warner, “The Alphabet: An Innovation and Its Diffusion,” Vetus Testamentum 30 (1980), p. 89.


Clear examples in Emil G. Kraeling, Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri (New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press, 1953), pp. 123ff., pl. 21; each document bore a single seal, except for no. 10 which had two. Fourth-century papyri from Wadi Daliyeh may have had as many as seven seals; see Frank Moore Cross, “The Discovery of the Samaria Papyri,” BA 26 (1963), pp. 111ff., p. 115, Fig. 3; p. 120, Fig. 5. See also, Avigad, Hebrew Bullae from the Time of Jeremiah (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1986).


The situation was, of course, different in Mesopotamia and wherever cuneiform writing was inscribed on clay tablets that formed archives. But even in Assyria, papyrus was certainly used in the seventh century B.C. in conjunction with clay tablets. There is pictorial evidence in the painting and reliefs of two scribes, one holding a clay tablet or hinged writing-board, the other a curling scroll, and there is written evidence in the reports of quesnons put to the god Shamash about “the man whose name is written on this piece of papyrus.”


See Millard, “The Survival of Cuneiform Texts,” forthcoming.


Cf. Warner, “The Alphabet,” p. 88


Millard, “Ugaritic and Canaanite Alphabets, Some Notes,” Ugarit Forschungen 11 (1979), pp. 613–616


Jacob Hoftijzer and Gerrit van der Kooij, Aramaic Texts from Deir ‘Alla (Leiden: Brill, 1976). There are now many studies of this text; see the contributions by Lemaire (“L’inscription de Balaam trouvée à Deir ‘Alia: épigraphie”) and Baruch Levine (“The Balaam Inscription: Historical Aspects” in Biblical Archaeology Today [Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1985)]


Yohanan Aharoni, Arad Inscriptions (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1981), pp. 103–104; Lemaire, Inscriptions Hébraiques, p. 221; cf. Yigael Yadin, “The Historical Significance of Inscription 88 from Arad: A Suggestion,” IEJ 26 (1976), pp. 9–14; Millard, “Aramaic and Hebrew Epigraphic Notes,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 110 (1978), p. 26.