1. This article is based on recent research on the Maccabean rise presented in Andrea M. Berlin and Paul J. Kosmin, eds., The Middle Maccabees: Archaeology, History, and the Rise of the Hasmonean Kingdom (Atlanta: SBL Press, 2021).

2. 2: See Julien Olivier, “Coinage as a Tool of Ptolemy VI Philometer’s Policies: Ptolemaic Coins in Coele Syria and Phoenicia in the Middle of the Second Century BCE,” Israel Numismatic Review 13 (2018), pp. 35—54.