The Hexapla is a six-columned book that compares various Greek versions of the Old Testament and the Hebrew text.


Since the 1950s, there have been two different numbering systems for the Shepherd: the traditional division into visions, mandates and similitudes with discrete divisions, and a newer sequential numbering in 114 chapters.


See Vassilios Tsaferis, “A Pilgrimage to the Site of the Swine Miracle,” BAR 15:02.



In addition to The Shepherd of Hermas, the collection includes the First and Second Letters of Clement, the Letters of Ignatius, Polycarp, and Barnabas, the Didache, and sometimes the Letter of Diognetus and the Martyrdom of Polycarp. Translations of most of them, including Hermas, are available in two volumes in the Loeb Classical Library, with Greek text, edited by Kirsopp Lake (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1912, with many reprintings); The Apostolic Fathers: A New Translation and Commentary in six volumes, edited by Robert M. Grant (London/Toronto: Thomas Nelson, 1968; the Shepherd of Hermas is vol. 6 by Graydon F. Snyder); and The Apostolic Fathers, edited by Jack Sparks (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1978).


Martin Leutzsch, Die Wahrnehmung sozialer Wirklichkeit im “Hirten des Hermas” (Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1989), pp. 31–39, lists from ancient Greco-Roman literature nine scenes of mortal man observing bathing goddesses, eighteen references to cultic washing of goddess statues and pictures, and nine erotic scenes, from other ancient texts, that portray women bathing, among them David and Bathsheba and Susanna and the elders.


Didache 11:3–12.