1. We dedicate this article to the many wonderful “wise women” on our field and research staff who have contributed so much to the Tel Abel Beth Maacah excavation project: Dianne Benton, Ruhama Bonfil, Ortal Haroch, Christin Johnson, Carroll Kobs, Miriam (Mimi) Lavi, Fredrika Loew, Claire MacKay-Glasgow, Jennifer Maidrand, Ora Mazar, Lauren Monroe, Alla Rabinovich, Melissa Rosensweig, Bettina Schwarz, and many others, as well as to the many dedicated volunteers (female and male) who make our work possible. The Tel Abel Beth Maacah excavations are directed by Robert Mullins of Azusa Pacific University and Naama Yahalom-Mack and Nava Panitz-Cohen of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Excavation licenses are granted by the Israel Antiquities Authority and the Israel Nature and Parks Authority. This research was supported by the ISRAEL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (Grant No. 859/17).

2. The date of 2 Samuel 20 has been extensively discussed by many scholars, and some place Sheba ben Bichri’s rebellion in the eighth century B.C.E. It should be mentioned that our excavations at Tel Abel Beth Maacah to date have not identified an occupation stratum that can be clearly dated to this time or any destruction layer that can be attributed to Tiglath-Pileser III (as in 2 Kings 15). However, some pottery from the eighth century B.C.E. has been recovered in survey and debris.

3. Claudia V. Camp, “The Wise Women of 2 Samuel: A Role Model for Women in Early Israel?” The Catholic Bible Quarterly 43.1 (1981), p. 24.

4. Also dating to this period is a large casemate building on the upper part of the tell that contained several special finds, including an exquisite head of a bearded male made of faience. See Naama Yahalom-Mack, Nava Panitz-Cohen, and Robert Mullins, “From a Fortified Canaanite City-State to ‘a City and a Mother’ in Israel: Five Seasons of Excavation at Tel Abel Beth Maacah,” Near Eastern Archaeology 81.2 (2018), p. 154.

5. Camp, “Wise Women,” pp. 14, 26.