Eusebius’s works are in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd Series, Vol. I(Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1971)


Lactantius’s works are in The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 7 (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1970).


We use here the most ancient spelling. Cicero (first century B.C.) and Lactantius (fourth century A.D.) spelled it Mulvian. Later historians have spelled it Milvian.


See Samuele Bacchiocchi, “How It Came About: From Saturday to Sunday,” BAR 04:03.


Ramsey MacMullen, Constantine (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1981), p. 72.


Patrick Bruun, Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. 7 (London: Spink, 1966), #43.


Brunn, Roman Imperial Coinage, #86.


About eight other varieties of Constantinian coins depict Christian symbolism. For more complete listing of Constantinian coinage with Christian symbolism see Journal of the Society for Ancient Numismatics, Vol. 8, No. 4, Charles Odahl, “Christian Symbols in Military Motifs on Constantine’s Coinage.” Dr. Odahl was most helpful to me in preparing this article.


The Spes Publica type, showing a labarum piercing a serpent and minted only in Constantinople in 326, may be a purely Christian design. (Kenneth Jacob, author of Coins and Christianity, in a letter to the author dated Feb. 14, 1985.) But this is debated. Patrick Bruun, for one, is skeptical. See Bruun, Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. 7, p. 61 ff. The argument centers on whether the serpent represents the biblical Satan or simply a universal symbol of evil. Since the concept of defeating a great evil that threatened the empire had been depicted thus in coinage for centuries, the design is too ambiguous to make either interpretation certain.


Eusebius, Vita Constantini 4, 73