Several systems have been devised for citing Ugaritic texts. The system I have used is that of Cyrus H. Gordon Ugaritic Textbook (Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1965). The citation refers to text 49, column 1, line 27.


Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1972. Ras Shamra is the modern name of the site; Ugarit the ancient name.


Bibliotheca Orientalis, Vol. 31, pp. 3–26 (1974).


Julius Wellhausen is widely known in connection with the so-called documentary hypothesis, according to which the Pentateuch is composed of separate strands—J (the Yahwist), E (the Elohist), P (the Priestly Code); and D (the Deuteronomist)—, which were later combined by a redactor(s). Wellhausen’s contribution to the documentary hypothesis grew out of his effort to relate the literature of the Old Testament to the actual history of the Israelites.


Some larger texts, like this one, have names. Aqht is the hero of the text. The “2” before the name indicates the second tablet.


An upright stone for cult, burial-marking or memorial purposes, often bearing an inscription.


The Ugaritic tablets date from the 14th–13th centuries, although the myths they contain probably reflect much older traditions and language. The Exodus from Egypt is generally considered to have occurred in the latter half of the 13th century.


Ugarit was destroyed about 1200 B.C.