See Tikva Frymer-Kensky, “What the Babylonian Flood Stories Can and Cannot Teach Us About the Genesis Flood,” BAR, November/December 1978.



George Smith, “The Chaldean Account of the Deluge,” Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology II (1873), pp. 213–234.


Henry Yule, The Book of Ser Marco Polo, volume 1, book 1, 3rd edition. (London: John Murray, 1926), p. 117, n. 3.


Richard Francis Burton, Zanzibar; City, Island, and Coast (New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1967), pp. 75–76.


Once also called germs (sing. germe) and trankies. See William Vincent, The Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients in the Indian Ocean, vol. II (London: T. Cadwell and W. Davies, 1807), p. 170, n. 248, and p. 379. According to A. Moore, “Notes on ‘Dhows,’” The Mariner’s Mirror 26 (1940), p. 206, “[the term ‘dhow’] has the sanction of long use by British seamen and is convenient as a type name to cover baggalas, sambuks and others, but it seems not to be used by the Arabs themselves. It would be interesting to know whether it once denoted an Arabian vessel now extinct or whether it belongs to some other people and language.”


Ibn Battuta, Travels in Asia and Africa 1325–1354, ed. and trans. H. A. R. Gibb (New York: Robert M. McBride & Co., 1929), p. 114.


Henry Yule, The Book of Ser Marco Polo, volume 1, book 1, 3rd edition. (London: John Murray, 1926), p. 108.


James Hornell, Water Transport: Origins and Early Evolution (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1946), p. 234.


Michael Flecker, “A Ninth-century Arab or Indian Shipwreck in Indonesian Waters.” International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 29, no. 2 (2000), pp. 199–217.


The only older archaeologically investigated shipwreck from antiquity in the Indian Ocean area, that of a fifth- or sixth-century A.D. shipwreck in Eritrea, has yet to yield hull remains. See Ralph K. Pedersen, “Under the Erythraean Sea: An Ancient Shipwreck in Eritrea,” The INA Quarterly 27, no. 2/3 (2000), pp. 3–13.


Jeffrey H. Tigay, The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic (Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1982), pp. 246–247.


Translation by the author from the transliterated text appearing in Simo Parpola, The Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, State Archives of Assyria Cuneiform Texts I (Helsinki: Univ. of Helsinki, 1997).


See the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary S/306 and K/579–580 for the distinctions between the beer types.


The New Year’s celebration, the ak¦¯tu, was a cultic festival celebrated from the Middle Babylonian period onwards (see the Concise Dictionary of Akkadian, J. Black, A. George, and N. Postgate, [Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2000], p. 10). For an account of the Babylonian New Year’s Day ritual, see A. Sachs “Temple Program for the New Year’s Festivals at Babylon,” in J. B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1950), pp. 331–334.


Tim Severin, The Sindbad Voyage (New York: Hutchinson, 1982), pp. 68–69.


R. J. Tournay and Aaron Shaffer, L’épopée de Gilgamesh (Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf, 1994), p. 229.


E. A. Speiser, “The Epic of Gilgamesh,” in Pritchard, ed., The Ancient Near East, vol. 1, p. 67, n. 3.


As told to the author by a sewn boat owner near Cochin, May 2003.


Henry Yule, The Book of Ser Marco Polo, volume 1, book 1, 3rd edition. (London: John Murray, 1926), p. 117, n. 3.


George F. Hourani, Arab Seafaring (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1995), p. 97. See also Louise Levathes, When China Ruled the Seas (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1994), p. 44; and Burton, Zanzibar, pp. 75–76.


Damon Gause, The War Journal of Major Damon “Rocky” Gause (New York: Hyperion, 1999), p. 119.


J. H. A. Jewell, Dhows at Mombasa (Nairobi: East African Publishing House, 1969), p. 13.


Speiser, “Gilgamesh,” p. 67. See also John Gardner, and John Maier, Gilgamesh (New York: Knopf, 1984), p. 231.