The Harris Papyrus, now located in the British Museum, comes from Thebes and dates from the end of the reign of Ramesses III. It is an important source for the history of the early Twentieth Dynasty.


The Onomasticon of Amenope is a collection of nine different manuscripts, attributed to Amenope, son of Amenope. These manuscripts, now scattered in various museums throughout the world, were found and purchased in different localities in Egypt during the last two centuries. Their attribution to Amenope is supported by five of the nine sources. Virtually nothing is known concerning Amenope except that he was a “scribe of sacred books in the House of Life.” These manuscripts have been dated to the end of the reign of Ramesses IX. Both the Tjekker and Philistines are mentioned.


The Wenamun papyrus, now in the Moscow Museum, was found at el-Hibeh in Middle Egypt and dates to the Twenty-first Dynasty (11th century B.C.), shortly after the events in the story. It presents a picture of a disintegrating Egyptian Empire which left a vacuum in the region, allowing Asiatics and others to challenge its dominance over the area of Canaan.