See Nadav Na’aman, “Cow Town or Royal Capital? Evidence for Iron Age Jerusalem,” BAR 23:04. See also “David’s Jerusalem—Fiction or Reality?”: Margreet Steiner, “It’s Not There: Archaeology Proves a Negative,” BAR 24:04, Jane Cahill, “It Is There: The Archaeological Evidence Proves It,” BAR 24:04, and Na’aman, “It Is There: Ancient Texts Prove It,” BAR 24:04.



Marie-Joseph Lagrange, Saint Étienne et son sanctuaire à Jérusalem (Paris, 1894).


Frances James, The Iron Age at Beth-Shean, (Philadelphia: Univ. Museum, Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1966), p. 8, figs. 98:3, 99:2; see also Appendix D, by William A. Ward, “The Egyptian Inscriptions of Level VI,” p. 174 (inscription no. F-2).


James, Beth-Shean, p. 8.


Yadin dated the fragment from Hazor to the New Kingdom period; see Yigael Yadin et al., Hazor III–IV, Plates (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society and Magnes Press, 1961), pl. 316:1; Hazor, The Head of All Those Kingdoms, The Schweich Lectures, 1970, (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1972), p. 126, pl. 35 (the photograph is published upside down); Orly Goldwasser, “Some Egyptian Finds from Hazor: Scarabs, Scarab Impressions and a Stele Fragment,” in Amnon Ben-Tor, ed., Hazor III–IV, Text (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1989), pp. 344–345. Other Egyptian stelae from the Ramesside period with the name of Osiris were found in the cemetery of Deir el-Balah.; see Raphael Ventura, “Four Egyptian Funerary Stelae from Deir el-Balah,”Israel Exploration Journal (IEJ) 37 (1987), pp. 105–115.


The Dominican fathers of the École Biblique entrusted me with the publication of these vessels. I would like to thank Père Jean-Baptiste Humbert for his kind assistance.


Louis-Hugues Vincent and Felix-Marie Abel, Jérusalem nouvelle, vol. 2 (Paris: Gabalda, 1926), pp. 774–775, pl. 79:8. This stone slab was published earlier by Lagrange (Saint Étienne, p. 136).


Vincent and Abel, Jérusalem nouvelle, p. 775 n. 1. Vincent rejected this identification. See T. Hayter Lewis, “Ruins of a Church on the Skull-Hill, Jerusalem,” Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement (PEFQS) (1891), pp. 214–216, and “Additional Note on the Church of St. Stephen,” PEFQS, pp. 298–299.


See Yadin et al., Hazor III–IV, Plates, pl. 80:3; and Ben-Tor, ed., Hazor III–IV, Text (1989), pp. 330–334, and the detailed discussion therein.


Gordon Loud, Megiddo II (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago, 1948), p. 105.


See R.A.S. Macalister, The Excavations of Gezer III (London: Palestine Exploration Fund, 1912), pl. 224:14.


Vincent Scheil, Revue biblique1 (1892), p. 116. Several Egyptian-style column capitals were unearthed in contexts of Late Bronze temples in Palestine: at Beth-Shean, Megiddo and Lachish. See Allen Rowe, The Four Canaanite Temples at Beth-Shean, vol. 1, The Temples and Cult Objects (Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1940), pp. 8, 16, pls. 26:20, 52A:4; James, Beth-Shean, p. 17, fig. 95:4; Azriel Siegelmann, “A Capital in the Form of a Papyrus Flower from Megiddo,”Tel Aviv 3 (1976), p. 141, pl. 10:3–4; David Ussishkin, “Excavations at Tel Lachish—1973–1977, Preliminary Report,” Tel Aviv 5 (1978), pp. 22–24, fig. 6, pl. 9:1.


Ludwig Borchardt, Die Ägyptische Pflanzensäule (Ein Kapitel zur Geschichte des Pflanzenornaments) (Berlin: E. Wasmuth, 1897), pp. 46–49.


In the process of studying the figurine, I received help from the late professor Raphael Giveon of the Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv Univ., who considered the figurine to represent the Egyptian god Ptah.


See John W. Crowfoot and Grace M. Fitzgerald, Excavations in the Tyropoeon Valley, Jerusalem 1927, Annual of the Palestine Exploration Fund 5 (1929), p. 93n. pl. 16:29.


James B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (ANET), 3rd ed. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969), p. 258.


Yohanan Aharoni, The Land of the Bible: A Historical Geography (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1979), p. 184.


Pritchard, ANET, p. 258.


On the worship of Seth in the time of the 19th Dynasty in Palestine, see Goldwasser, “On the Date of Seth from Qubeibeh,” IEJ 42 (1992), pp. 47–51.


See James M. Weinstein, “The Egyptian Empire in Palestine: A Reassessment,”Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research 241 (1981), pp. 18–23. See also Gabriel Barkay, “A Late Bronze Age Egyptian Temple in Jerusalem?” IEJ 46 (1996), p. 42 n. 42.


Beno Rothenberg, Timna: Valley of the Biblical Copper Mines (London: Thames & Hudson, 1972), pp. 125–207.


Shmuel Ahituv, Canaanite Toponyms in Ancient Egyptian Documents, (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1984), pp. 34–35, 70–71.