Liudger Sabottka, Zephanja: Versuch einer Neuübersetzung mit philologischen Kommentar, Biblica et Orientalia 25 (Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1972), pp. 90–91.


Adele Berlin, Zephaniah, Anchor Bible series 25A (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1994), p. 110.


Siegfried Morenz, Egyptian Religion (London: Methuen, 1973), p. 155. For more detailed information, see Sidney Smith, “The Babylonian Ritual for the Consecration and Induction of a Divine Statue,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (January, 1925), pp. 37–60.


See Christopher Walker and Michael B. Dick, “The Induction of the Cult Image in Ancient Mesopotamia,” in Born in Heaven, Made on Earth, ed. Dick (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1999).


A. Leo Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago, 1964), pp. 191–193.


Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia, p. 195.


Leonard William King, Babylonian Boundary Stones and Memorial Tablets in the British Museum (London: British Museum, 1912), no. 36, col. iv.1.47–v.1.7, v.39–vi.13.


Thorkild Jacobsen, “The Graven Image,” in Ancient Israelite Religion: Essays in Honor of Frank Moore Cross, ed. Patrick D. Miller et al. (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987), pp. 26–27. Text from Henry C. Rawlinson, The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia (London: British Museum, 1861–1909), vol. 4, pl. 25, col. iii.42–66. Another version of the hymn may be found in Erich Ebeling, Tod und Leben nach der Vorstellungen der Babylonier (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1931), pp. 120–121.


François Thureau-Dangin, Rituels accadiens (Paris: Cerf, 1921).


Edward M. Curtis, “Idol, Idolatry,” Anchor Bible Dictionary (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1992), vol. 3, p. 378.


J. Faur, “The Biblical Idea of Idolatry,” Jewish Quarterly of Religion 69 (1978), p. 7.


John Merlin Powis Smith, Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah, Joel, International Critical Commentary series (New York: Scribner’s, 1911), pp. 228–229.


Rex Mason, Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Joel (Sheffield: JSOT, 1994) p. 45.


Gillis Gerleman, Zephanija: Textkritisch und literarische untersucht (Lund: Gleerup, 1942), p. 40; Arvid Schou Kapelrud, The Message of the Prophet Zephaniah (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1975), p. 34; Carl-A. Keller, Michée, Nahoum, Habakuk, Sophonie, Commentaire de l’Ancien Testament (CAT) XIb (Geneva: Delachaux et Niestlé, 1990), pp. 199–200. Sabottka, Zephanja, pp. 83–84, 91.