Footnotes

1.

The term “Paleolithic” (Old Stone Age) refers to both a time period—from roughly 1.5 million years ago to roughly 10,000 years ago—and a cultural phase, in which subsistence is based on hunting and gathering. The period is subdivided into three stages: the Lower Paleolithic, during which Homo erectus lived; the Middle Paleolithic, which is characterized by Neandertal culture; and the Upper Paleolithic, the time of the first modern humans. Dates for these stages vary depending on the part of the world being studied.

2.

In archaeological terminology, an industry is a group of related artifacts, such as stone tools, that were made at about the same time using the same manufacturing techniques. Artifact industries are generally named for the site at which they were first identified. For example, the Oldowan industry was named for Olduvai Gorge in Kenya, where Oldowan tools were first identified.

3.

Very ancient dates are usually expressed in years ago, or years before the present (B.P.), rather than with the more conventional designation “B.C.”

4.

The theory that Neandertals were occasional cannibals first appeared in the mid-19th century. It was given some impetus by the 1899-1906 excavations at Krapina, in Croatia, where broken and burned human bones were found with animal remains. More recently, the excavator of a damaged Neandertal skull found in Guattari Cave, south of Rome, suggested that the brain had been extracted and eaten in a religious ceremony. There remains much disagreement about these interpretations of the evidence.

5.

In making arrows, Paleolithic people had difficulty turning irregular pieces of wood into straight, smooth arrow shafts. One way to do this was to force the shafts repeatedly through cylindrical holes drilled in pieces of bone, which compressed and straightened the wood. These tools are called arrow-straighteners.

Endnotes

1.

For the original interpretation, see Henry de Lumley, “A Paleolithic Camp at Nice,” Scientific American 220 (1969), pp. 42–50. A more recent interpretation has thrown this reconstruction into question: See Paolo Villa, Terra Amata and the Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Record of Southern France, Publications in Anthropology, vol. 13 (Berkeley: Univ. of California, 1983).

2.

Marcellin Boule, “L’homme fossile de la Chapelle-aux-Saintes” in Annales de Paléontologie 6–8 (1911–1913).

3.

William Straus and A. Cave, in “Pathology and Posture of Neanderthal Man” (Quarterly Review of Biology 32 [1957], p. 348), write that if a Neandertal man were “reincarnated and placed in a New York subway—provided he were bathed, shaved, and dressed in modern clothing—it is doubtful he would attract any more attention than some of its other denizens.”

4.

Robert J. Wenke’s Patterns in Prehistory (Oxford University Press, 1999) has an excellent discussion of the origins controversy, in which he tests each theory against all the available evidence and concludes that too little is known for anyone to decide which model of human origins is accurate.