See Ernest G. Clarke, Targum Pseudo-Jonathan of the Pentateuch: Text and Concordance (Hoboken, NJ: Ktav, 1984), p. 43; Michael Maher, Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, Genesis (Aramaic Bible 1B; Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1992), p. 119. For other expressions of the opinion that the earrings bore idolatrous images, see Menahem Kasher, Torah Shelemah, Talmud-Midrashic Encyclopedia on the Pentateuch 5: Genesis (Jerusalem: Azriel, 1936), pp. 1339–1340 (Hebrew).


Nahum M. Sarna, for example, writes that the earrings “are no ordinary pieces of jewelry but talismans adorned with pagan symbols” (The JPS Torah Commentary, Genesis/tyvarb [Philadelphia/New York: Jewish Publication Society, 1989], p. 240) and Moshe Weinfeld observes that “as in the case of other pieces of jewelry, earrings…were often made in the shape of small figurines which also served as amulets” (Olam ha-Tanakh 1: Beresûit [Tel Aviv: Davidson-Iti, 1993], p. 197).


Othmar Keel, “Vergraben der ‘fremden Götter’” in Genesis xxxv 4b, Vetus Testamentum 23 (1973), pp. 306–307, n. 4.


This interpretation was suggested long ago by the medieval commentator Hizzequni, and more recently by Arnold B. Ehrlich. See Ehrlich, Randglossen zur hebräischen Bibel 1: Genesis und Exodus (Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1908), p. 178.


William W. Hallo, “Cult Statue and Divine Image: A Preliminary Study,” in Hallo, James C. Moyer and Leo G. Perdue, eds., Scripture in Context 2: More Essays on the Comparative Method (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1983), pp. 1–17. Hallo tells us that earrings were “among the typical accoutrements of cult statues by Neo-Sumerian times at the end of the [third] millennium [B.C.E.]” (p. 16).


W.F. Leemans, Ishtar of Lagaba and Her Dress (Leiden: Brill, 1952); Jean Bottéro, “Les inventaires de Qatna,” Revue d’assyriologie et d’Archéologie Orientale 43 (1949), p. 1ff.


Erich Ebeling, Keilschrifttexte aus Assur religiösen Inhalts, 2 vols., WVDOG (Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichung der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft) 18, 34; (Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1915–1923) 1. text 98 r. 17 lines 45–46, quoted here from The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (CAD), A2, p. 145 s.v. ansabtu.


See William R. Sladek, Inanna’s Descent to the Nether World (Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins Univ., 1974; available from University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI), p. 244.


Alasdair Livingstone, ed., Court Poetry and Literary Miscellanea, State Archives of Assyria 3 (Helsinki: Helsinki Univ. Press, 1989), p. 36 (text 14:13–16).


Pierre Amiet and Maurice Lambert, “Objets inscrits de la Collection Foroughi,” Revue d’Assyriologie et d’Archéologie Orientale 67 (1973), pp. 157–162.


Ora Negbi, Canaanite Gods in Metal: An Archaeological Study of Ancient Syro-Palestinian Figurines, Publications of the Institute of Archaeology 5 (Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University Institute of Archaeology, 1976), no. 1453.


Negbi, Canaanite Gods in Metal, no. 1384.


Negbi, Canaanite Gods in Metal, no. 1563.


For further details, see Victor Avigdor Hurowitz, “Who Lost an Earring? Genesis 35:4 Reconsidered,” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 62:1 (2000), p. 28.