See Stephen J. Patterson, “Q—The Lost Gospel,” BR 09:05; Eta Linnemann, “Is There a Gospel of Q?” BR 11:04; and Patterson, “Yes, Virginia, There Is a Q,” BR 11:05.


The Greek fragments were found in Oxyrhynchus, Egypt.


The term “synoptic,” from the Greek for “seeing together,” refers to the fact that the gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke share so much material that, when printed in three parallel columns, the correspondences can be “seen together” at a glance.


As to whether Gethsemane was a garden or was just near an agricultural plot, see Joan E. Taylor, “The Garden of Gethsemane: Not the Place of Jesus’ Arrest,” BAR 21:04.



Luke Timothy Johnson, The Real Jesus: The Misguided Quest for the Historical Jesus and the Truth oF the Traditional Gospels (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1996).


Catholic Christianity as used here should not be confused or equated with the Roman Catholic Church. In the first centuries, Catholic (from a Greek root) or Universal (from a Latin one) Christianity was distinguished from a more radical Gnostic Christianity on its left and a more conservative Legal Christianity on its right. By using the name Catholic or Universal that centrist position claimed to be more inclusive than either of those other options.


Gnostic Christianity is, throughout history, the permanent shadow of Catholic Christianity. It is evident wherever faith ignores facts, dominant wherever theology avoids history and triumphant wherever Christian theologians look only to heaven and not equally to earth. Catholic Christianity lives in the dialectic of those dichotomies and also in that of body and soul, flesh and spirit. It dies whenever that dialectic is diminished, denied or destroyed. What is open for discussion is whether examples of Gnostic Christianity’s present ascendancy include such scholars as Luke Timothy Johnson and, unless they did not read him carefully, those authors who praised him on his book’s cover.


See John Dominic Crossan, The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1991), p. 47.


See Crossan, The Historical Jesus, p. xxvii.


See New Testament Apocrypha, vol. 1, Gospels and Related Writings, 2nd ed., ed. Wilhelm Schneemelcher (Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox, 1991), p. 287; see pp. 291–297 for text.


Helmut Koester, Ancient Christian Gospels (Philadelphia: Trinity, 1990), pp. 165, 170.


See New Testament Apocrypha, vol. 1, p. 113; see pp. 117–129 for text.


See New Testament Apocrypha, vol. 1, p. 251; see pp. 252–278 for text.