Classical Hebrew is written without vowels. The reader is supposed to know from the context what vowels to supply. Frequently a word will have a slightly different, or significantly different meaning, depending on the vowels used.



The literature making this correlation is quite extensive. See, for example, Ziony Zevit’s “Three Ways to Look at the Ten Plagues,” BR 06:03; George A. F. Knight, Theology as Narration (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1976); Jack Finegan, Let My People Go (New York: Harper & Row, 1963); and many others. W. M. Flinders Petrie, in Egypt and Israel (1911, pp. 25–36), was the first to demonstrate that the plagues followed one another in the calendar year. Greta Hort attempted to explain away the miraculous in the plagues in an important study, “The Plagues of Egypt,” in Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft (ZAW) 69 (1957), pp. 84–103, and ZAW 70 (1958), pp. 48–59.


“The Divine Attributes of Pharaoh,” trans. John Wilson in Ancient Near Eastern Texts, 2nd edition, ed. James Pritchard (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1955), p. 431.


For discussion of texts discovered in the temples of two sites, see Henri Frankfort, Kingship and the Gods (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1948), pp. 40–47.


Alan Gardiner, “The Autobiography of Rekhmire,” Zeitschrift für agyptische Sprache und Alterumskunde 60 (1934), p. 69.


For an in-depth study of these terms, see Gregory K. Beale, “An Exegetical and Theological Consideration of the Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart in Exodus 4–14 and Romans 9, ” Trinity Journal 5 (1984), pp.129–154. I encourage readers to consult Beale’s work because it is a critical study and it supplied much of the impetus for the present article.


E. A Wallis Budge, An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary (London: John Murray, 1920).


For colored reproductions of the Papyrus of Ani, see E. A. Wallis Budge, The Book of the Dead: Papyrus of Ani, Vol. III (New York: Putnam, 1913), and R. O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead (New York: Macmillan, 1972).


The author of the text includes a mummy determinative here—Ani is probably telling his heart not to desert him even though he is dead and mummified.


Probably a reference to the ennead, the tribunal of gods awaiting to pass judgment on Ani.


The ancient mortuary god Anubis.


The ka sign represents the spirit or essence of a person. See, John D. Currid, “An Examination of the Egyptian Background of the Genesis Cosmogony,” Biblische Zeitschrift (1991), p. 24, n. 31.


Book of the Dead XXXB. All quotations are the author’s translations unless otherwise noted.


Book of the Dead XXXB.


Book of the Dead XXXB.


See, for instance, William A. Ward, Studies on Scarab Seals I (Warminster, UK: Aris and Phillips, 1978); Olga Tufnell, Studies on Scarab Seals II, 2 vols. (Warminster, UK: Aris and Phillips, 1984); Alan Rowe, A Catalogue of Egyptian Scarabs (Cairo: Imprimerie de L’Institut Francais, d’Archeologie Orientale, 1936); Flinders Petrie, Scarabs and Cylinders (London: School of Archaeology in Egypt, 1917); Carol Andrews, Egyptian Mummies (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1984); and many others.


Plutarch, Moralia 10 (355A), 74 (381A); cited in G. Posener, Dictionary of Egyptian Civilization (New York: Tudor Publ., 1959), p. 252. Other ancient authors who denied the existence of a female scarabeus include Horapollo (Hieroglyphics), Aelian (De Natura Animalium 10.15) and Porphyry (De abstinentia 4.9). For a general discussion, see E. A. Wallis Budge, The Mummy (New York: Macmillan, 1972).


Beale, “An Exegetical and Theological Consideration,” p. 149.