See “The Last Days of Ugarit,” BAR 09:05, Claude F. A. Schaeffer, and “The Tablets from Ugarit and Their Importance for Biblical Studies,” BAR 09:05, Peter C. Craigie.


Lawrence E. Stager and Samuel R. Wolff, “Child Sacrifice at Carthage—Religious Rite or Population Control?” BAR 10:01.



A. Herdner “Nouveaux Textes Alphabetiques de Ras Shamra,” Ugaritica VII (Paris, 1978), pp. 31–38 (text facsimile on p. 33). For an earlier publication, see Herdner, “Une priere a Baal des ugaritains en danger,” Proceedings of the French Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres (CRAIBL, 1972 [1973]), p. 694. The present writer’s views on this text may be found in “A Ugaritic Prayer for a City Under Siege,” in Proceedings of the Seventh World Congress of Jewish Studies: Studies in the Bible and the Ancient Near East 177 [1981], pp. 63–83 (in Hebrew).


The Ugaritic word bkr in Hebrew equals [bekor], the same word used in 2 Kings 3:27! The initial sign of the Ugaritic word is heavily damaged, and some have doubted that it is a B rather than a D. But Mlle. Herdner, an acknowledged specialist in Ugaritic epigraphy, was quite definite in her reading on both occasions, and the present writer has marshalled the literary-prosodic arguments in favor of this reading in his aforementioned study (endnote 1). For a contrary opinion, cf. P. Xella in Rivista di Studi Fenice 6 (1978), pp. 127–136.


The text actually reads an otherwise unknown H|-T-P which I take to be a scribal error for the well-attested H|-T-K—“offspring” or the like. In Ugaritic cuneiform script P and K are very similar and are on more than one occasion confused with each other. Attempts to interpret Ugaritic H|-T-P as the equivalent of Akkadian Hå-T-P are highly improbable on purely phonological grounds, and the results are much less convincing literarily, since the word stands in obviously synonymous parallelism with B-K-R. For further discussion, the reader is referred to my afore cited study, pp. 76ff.


Bibliotheca historica, Book XX.13.4ff, 14.1ff; transl. R. M. Greer.


A History of Alexander the Great (of Macedon), Book 4.3.23; transl. J. C. Rolfe.


Porphyrius, De Abstinentia, II.56 = Eusebius, Praep. Evang., 16.6. Translation and commentary in C. Clemen, Die Phönikische Religion (Liepzig, 1939).