For a survey of Jewish interpretation, see Gerald J. Blidstein, “Prostration and Mosaics in Talmudic Law,” Bulletin of the Institute of Jewish Studies (London) 2 (1974), pp. 19–39.


See Philip Birnbaum, High Holiday Prayer Book (New York: Hebrew Publishing Company, 1951), pp. 377–378, 815–822.


Visitors to Israel may be familiar with the word maskit from the Maskit chain of jewelry and artworks stores founded by Ruth Dayan (now out of business).


Cf. W.A.L. Elmslie, The Mishna on Idolatry, ‘Aboda Zara, Texts and Studies, Contributions to Biblical and Patristic Literature (London/Edinburgh: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1911), pp. 62, 74.


Cf. in general E.S. Hartland et al., “Stones,” in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, ed. J. Hastings (New York: Scribner’s; Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1921), vol. 11, pp. 864–881; C.M. Edsman, “Stones,” in The Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. Mircea Eliade (New York: Macmillan, 1987), vol. 14, pp. 49–55.


William F. Albright, Archaeology and the Religion of Israel: The Ayer Lectures of the Colgate-Rochester Divinity School (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1956), pp. 166–167.


Cf. J.E. Hartley, Leviticus, Word Bible Commentary 4 (Dallas: Word, 1992), pp. 449–450.


Arnold B. Ehrlich, Randglossen zur hebraischen Bibel: Textkritisches, Sprachliches und Sachliches (Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1909), ad loc.


Mayer I. Gruber, Aspects of Nonverbal Communication in the Ancient Near East, Studia Pohl 12 (Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1980), vol. 1, p. 107.


Anthony R. George, “Sennacherib and the Tablet of Destinies,” Iraq 48 (1986), pp. 133–145, esp. 144–145.


This has been determined by chemical analysis of a bowl specifically designated as composed of alallu. Cf. William L. Moran, “A Bowl of alallu-stone,” Zeitschrift für die Assyriologie 81 (1991), pp. 268–273.


See Wilfred G. Lambert, “The Twenty-One Poultices,” Anatolian Studies 30 (1980), pp. 77–83, esp. 82.


Walter Farber, “Associative Magic: Some Rituals, Word Plays, and Philology,” Journal of the American Oriental Society 106 (1986), pp. 447–449.