1. There are no references to the god Yahweh, or personal or place names with the divine element Yahweh, in Late Bronze Age sources or early alphabetic texts from the early Iron Age. The name yhw in Egyptian topographical texts from Amara West and Soleb does not refer to a deity but a people group, the name of which cannot be clearly linked to the god Yahweh.

2. This text seems to promote the political interests of the Northern Kingdom during its expansion in the ninth century BCE, when we find inscriptional references to “Yahweh of Teman” at Kuntillet ‘Ajrud. See Michael J. Stahl, The “God of Israel” in History and Tradition (Leiden: Brill, 2021), pp. 52–144.

3. Othmar Keel and Christoph Uehlinger, Gods, Goddesses, and Images of God in Ancient Israel (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998).

4. For further discussion, see Michael J. Stahl, “God’s Best ‘Frenemy’: A New Perspective on YHWH and Baal in Ancient Israel and Judah,” Semitica 63 (2021), pp. 45–94.