In my view many issues, crucial for understanding the history of Ekron as well as wider issues, should be interpreted in a way radically different from that of the excavators. See my detailed critical study: “The Fortifications of Philistine Ekron,” Israel Exploration Journal 55 (2005), pp. 35–65.


Trude Dothan and Seymour Gitin, “Notes and News: Tel Miqne (Ekron), 1981,” Israel Exploration Journal 32 (1982), pp. 150–153.


Dothan and Gitin, “Notes and News: Tel Miqne (Ekron), 1982,” Israel Exploration Journal 33 (1983), p. 127.


Translated by J.A. Wilson in James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, 2nd ed. (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1955), p. 262.


Moshe Dothan and Yosef Porath, Ashdod V: Excavation of Area G. The Fourth–Sixth Seasons of Excavations 1968–1970 (‘Atiqot 23) (Jerusalem, 1993), pp. 3, 70–71, plan 10.


Amihai Mazar, Timnah (Tel Batash) I: Stratigraphy and Architecture (Qedem 37) (Jerusalem, 1997), p. 254.


Dothan and Gitin, Tel Miqne (Ekron) Excavation Project. Spring 1982. Field Report. Field I NE, Areas 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 (Jerusalem: Tel Miqne [Ekron] Excavation Project Publications Office, 1982), p. 12.


A number of decorated Philistine and other pottery sherds dated (as designated by the excavators) to “Iron II(?)” were also found in the foundation trench of the thick mud-brick wall. This is a clear indication that the foundation trench was cut and refilled at a late date. The excavators, however, preferred to consider these sherds as “contaminated.” Ann E. Killebrew, Report of the 1984 Excavations. Field INE/SE (Jerusalem: Tel Miqne-Ekron Project Office, 1986) pp. 137–138, 147; Ann E. Killebrew, Report of the 1985–1987 Excavations in Field INE: Areas 5, 6, 7. The Bronze and Iron Ages. Text and Data Base (Plates, Sections, Plans) (Jerusalem: Tel Miqne-Ekron Project Office, 1996), pp. 87–88.


Nadav Na’aman, “Ekron under the Assyrian and Egyptian Empires,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 332 (2003), pp. 81–91.


Nadav Na’aman, “Sennacherib’s ‘Letter to God’ on His Campaign to Judah,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 214 (1974), pp. 25–39. The attacked city was first identified with Gath, but it should most probably be identified with Ekron; see Na’aman, “Hezekiah and the Kings of Assyria,” Tel Aviv 21 (1994), pp. 245–246.


See Israel Finkelstein and Lily Singer-Avitz, “Ashdod Revisited,” Tel Aviv 28 (2001), pp. 238–239.


Israel Finkelstein, forthcoming. “Is the Philistine Paradigm Still Viable?” in Manfred Bietak, ed., The Proceedings of the Second EuroConference of ‘SCIEM 2000,’ Vienna.