Footnotes

1.

Israel Finkelstein, “Shiloh Yields Some, but Not All, of Its Secrets,” BAR 12:01.

3.

Amnon Ben-Tor and Maria Teresa Rubiato, “Excavating Hazor Part II: Did the Israelites Destroy the Canaanite City?” BAR 25:03. Ben-Tor and Rubiato assign this destruction to the conquest of Hazor by Joshua. If Biblical chronology is followed, however, it should be attributed to Deborah and Barak. Moreover, if the 1230 destruction was caused by Joshua there would be no city for Deborah and Barak to conquer since Hazor was not rebuilt until the time of Solomon.

4.

Adam Zertal, “Philistine Kin Found in Early Israel,” BAR 28:03.

5.

Joseph A. Callaway, “Was My Excavation of Ai Worthwhile?” BAR 11:02, p. 68; cf. Ziony Zevit, “The Problem of Ai,” BAR 11:02.

6.

Interestingly, Kenyon’s interpretations in other areas have been abandoned. See, e.g., Hershel Shanks, “The Mistress of Stratigraphy Had Clay Feet,” BAR 29:03.

7.

For the close parallels between the Biblical narrative and the excavated data, see Bryant G. Wood, “Did the Israelites Conquer Jericho? A New Look at the Archaeological Evidence,” BAR 16:02.

Endnotes

1.

“[M]any biblical scholars use archaeology to bolster views which they had already come to hold independently of the archaeological evidence,” Eric M. Myers, “Ceramics, Chronology and Historical Reconstructions,” in Lawrence E. Stager, Joseph A. Green and Michael D. Coogan, eds., The Archaeology of Jordan and Beyond: Essays in Honor of James A. Sauer (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2000), p. 349.

2.

The evidence considered here is summarized in Bryant G. Wood, “From Ramesses to Shiloh: Archaeological Discoveries Bearing on the Exodus–Judges Period,” in David M. Howard, Jr. and Michael A. Grisanti, eds., Giving the Sense: Understanding and Using Old Testament Historical Texts (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 2003), pp. 256–282. To be consistent, a chronology for Biblical history that is based on the chronological data in the Hebrew Bible must be used, i.e., an Exodus in the mid-15th century B.C. See Bryant G. Wood, “The Rise and Fall of the 13th-Century Exodus-Conquest Theory,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 48 (2005), pp. 475–489. For dates in the Judges period, see Paul J. Ray, Jr., “Another Look at the Period of the Judges,” in Glenn A. Carnagey, Sr., ed., Beyond the Jordan (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2005), pp. 93–104.

3.

1 Samuel 4; Psalm 78:60; Jeremiah 7:12–14; 26:6, 9.

4.

Baruch Halpern discusses the Biblical description of the building in some detail in “The Assassination of Eglon,” Bible Review, November/December 1998. The plan of the building excavated by Garstang matches Halpern’s reconstructed plan remarkably well.

5.

Bryant G. Wood, “The Search for Joshua’s Ai,” Critical Issues in the Early History of Israel, eds. Richard S. Hess, Gerald A. Klingbeil and Paul J. Ray, Jr. (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, forthcoming).

6.

John Garstang, “Jericho: City and Necropolis, Fourth Report,” Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 21 (1934), pp. 107–110.