Footnotes

1.

See BAR’s Bicentennial Salute—The United States Navy Explores the Holy Land” by Emanuel Levine, BAR 02:04.

3.

See the following articles in BAR: Adam Zertal, “Has Joshua’s Altar Been Found on Mt. Ebal?” BAR 11:01; Aharon Kempinski, “Joshua’s Altar—An Iron Age I Watchtower” BAR 12:01; Zertal, “How can Kempinski Be so Wrong!” BAR 12:01.

4.

The Samaritans still exist today in two small communities—Nablus and Holon—in modern Israel.

5.

Right, as opposed to left, is favored in the Bible. Jacob crosses his hands, pacing his right hand on Ephraim (Genesis 48:14). The “right hand of God” overcame Israel’s enemies (Exodus 15:6). For other examples, see Encyclopaedia Judaica (1972), vol. 14, p. 177.

Endnotes

1.

Genesis 14:3; Numbers 34:3, 12; Deuteronomy 3:17; Joshua 3:16, 12:3, 15:2, 5, 18:19. It is also called yam haarabaÆ, “Sea of the Aravah,” (Deuteronomy 3:17, 4:49; Joshua 3:16, 12:3; 2 Kings 14:25), and yam haggadmoÆni, “East[ern]/Former Sea” (Ezekiel 47:18; Joel 2:20; Zechariah 14:8).

2.

Pausanias, Periegesis 5.7, 4–5.

3.

Barry J. Beitzel, The Moody Atlas of Bible Lands (Chicago: Moody Press, 1985), p. 2.

4.

For additional information, see Atlas of Israel, 3rd ed. (Tel Aviv: Survey of Israel, 1985), pp. 14–15.

5.

J. Neumann, Science Bulletin, Research Council of Israel 7, (1958), pp. 137–163.

6.

Josephus, The Jewish War 4.8.4; cf. Pilgrim of Bordeaux, annotated edition of P. Wesseling, Vetera Romanorum Itinera (Amsterdam: Wetstenium & Smith, 1735); cf. John Wilkinson, Egeria’s Travels to the Holy Land (Jerusalem: Ariel, 1981), pp. 161–163.

7.

For this translation of ummanu, the reader is advised to consult Wolfram von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch (Wiesbaden, West Germany: Otto Harrassowitz, 1959), p. 1415; cf. The Assyrian Dictionary, vol. 8 (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1971), p. 11a.