See Ronald Hendel, “When the Sons of God Cavorted with the Daughters of Men,Bible Review 03:02.



See also Thomas Holland, “Jericho,” in Eric Meyers, ed., The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, vol. 3 (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1997), p. 223. Bryant Wood has tried—unsuccessfully—to redate the destruction of Jericho to around 1400 B.C.E.: see “Dating Jericho’s Destruction: Bienkowski Is Wrong on All Counts,BAR 16:05, pp. 45–49. In any case, this date would still be at least 150 years too early for a possible connection with the early Israelites.


G.E. Wright, “Troglodytes and Giants in Palestine,” Journal of Biblical Literature 57 (1938), p. 308.


On these structures, see Aaron Burke, “Walled Up to Heaven”: The Evolution of Middle Bronze Age Fortification Strategies in the Levant (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2008).