Peter Garnsey and Greg Woolf, “Patronage of the Rural Poor in the Roman World,” in Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, ed., Patronage in Ancient Society (London: Routledge, 1989), p. 153. See also Steven J. Friesen and Walter Scheidel, “The Size of the Economy and the Distribution of Income in the Roman Empire,” Journal of Roman Studies 99 (2009), pp. 61–91; available for free at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1299313.


For more on the topic of poverty and wealth in the Roman Empire and among earliest Christian communities, see Peter Garnsey, Famine and Food Supply in the Graeco-Roman World: Responses to Risk and Crisis (New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988); Steven J. Friesen, “Poverty in Pauline Studies: Beyond the So-called New Consensus,” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 26 (2004), pp. 323–336; Bruce W. Longenecker, Remember the Poor: Paul, Poverty, and the Greco-Roman World (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2010); Justin J. Meggitt, Paul, Poverty, and Survival (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1998); Dale Martin, “Review Essay: Justin J. Meggitt, Paul, Poverty and Survival,” Journal of New Testament Studies 84 (2001), pp. 51–64; Walter Scheidel et al., eds., The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007).


Claire De Ruyt, Macellum: marché alimentaire des romains (Louvain-la-Neuve: Institut supérieur d‘archéologie et d‘histoire de l‘art, Collège Érasme, 1983).


Keith Hopkins, Conquerers and Slaves (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1978).


Monika Trümper, Graeco-Roman Slave Markets: Fact or Fiction? (Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2009).


See the research of Katherine Shaner, “Religious and Civic Lives of the Enslaved: A Case Study in Roman Ephesos” (Th.D. diss., Harvard Divinity School, 2012).


Jennifer Glancy, Slavery in Early Christianity (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2002); J. Albert Harrill, Slaves in the New Testament: Literary, Social and Moral Dimensions (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2006).