1. See Philip D. Stern, The Biblical Ḥerem: A Window on Israel’s Religious Experience (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1991); Susan Niditch, War in the Hebrew Bible: A Study in the Ethics of Violence (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1993); John J. Collins, Does the Bible Justify Violence? (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2004).

2. Mario Liverani, The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy (London: Routledge, 2014), p. 510.