S. David Sperling, The Original Torah (New York: New York Univ. Press, 1998).


Sperling drops a footnote to “David” in the list to tell the reader that in 1993 an inscription was found that mentions the “House of David”; this, however, he tells us, does not count: The inscription refers “to a king of Judah but not to King David himself.” I’ll bet dollars to donuts that Sperling learned of this extraordinary inscription only after he wrote the list including David and then added the footnote to make his sentence technically correct. The inclusion of David in the list only highlights the weakness of his point.


See John P. Meier, “The Testimonium,” BR, June 1991.


See Robert Deutsch, “Seal of Ba‘alis Surfaces,” BAR 25:02.


See my revision of the chapter on the Exodus in the new edition of Ancient Israel (Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1999).


Frauke Gröndahl, Die Personennamen der Texte aus Ugarit (Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1967), pp. 43 (not interpreted as Israel), 394 (the name of an elite Maryannu warrior).