See Janet Howe Gaines, “Lilith,” BR, October 2001.



For a concise survey of the satan question consult, Victor Hamilton’s article “Satan” in the Anchor Bible Dictionary (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1992).


A collection of these early interpretive texts is to be found in James Kugel’s engaging The Bible as It Was (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ., 1997), pp. 72–75.


Gary A. Anderson explores this and other Jewish and Christian interpretations of the Adam and Eve story in The Genesis of Perfection: Adam and Eve in Jewish and Christian Imagination (Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox, 2001); for the serpent, see pp. 91–92.


Much of their work is summarized with abundant illustrations in Othmar Keel and Christoph Uehlinger, Gods, Goddesses, and Images of God in Ancient Israel (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 1998). The subject also comes up in Philip J. King and Lawrence E. Stager, Life in Biblical Israel (Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox, 2001), p. 84.