1. Julia Gresky et al., “First Osteological Evidence of Severed Hands in Ancient Egypt,” Scientific Reports 13 (2023): 5239, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-32165-8.

2. For a detailed exploration, see Danielle Candelora, “Trophy or Punishment: Reinterpreting the Tell El Dab‘a Hand Cache within Middle Bronze Age Legal Traditions,” in Manfred Bietak and Silvia Prell, eds., The Enigma of the Hyksos, Vol. I (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2019), pp. 95–106.