Franz Kafka, Parables and Paradoxes (New York: Schocken, 1961), p. 93.


Lawrence E. Stager, “When Canaanites and Philistines Ruled Ashkelon,” BAR 17:02, repr. in Ashkelon Discovered (Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1991), p. 9; “The Impact of the Sea Peoples in Canaan (1185–1050 B.C.E.),” The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, ed. Thomas E. Levy, 2nd ed. (London: Leicester Univ. Press, 1998), p. 344. Brian Hesse, “Pig Lovers and Pig Haters: Patterns of Palestinian Pork Production,” Journal of Ethnobiology 10 (1990), pp. 195–225; Brian Hesse and Paula Wapnish, “Pig Use and Abuse in the Ancient Levant: Ethnoreligious Boundary-Building with Swine,” Ancestors for the Pigs: Pigs in Prehistory, ed. Sarah M. Nelson (Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Museum, 1998), pp. 123–135. Hesse and Wapnish date the religious force of the avoidance of pork in Israel to the Hellenistic period, but I believe the textual evidence supports Stager’s earlier dating—note that the ritual significance of clean and unclean animals is already assumed in the J source (Genesis 7:2, 8:20).