Footnotes

1.

Before eating the Sabbath meal on Friday evening, the wine and then the bread are blessed. Saturday evening, the bread is blessed, the last Sabbath meal eaten, and at the Sabbath’s conclusion, the wine is blessed.

Endnotes

1.

For a more detailed examination of this problem see “Dates, Discrepancies, and Dead Sea Scrolls,” The New Christian Advocate, July 1958, pp. 50–54.

2.

W. M. Ramsay, Was Christ Born in Bethlehem? (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1905).

3.

Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XV.ii.1; VS.x.4; XVII.ii.4. The film, “Jesus of Nazareth,” erroneously followed Ramsay’s weak argument in an at tempt to harmonize the Gospels, because it showed the Romans taking a census in Herod the Great’s reign.

4.

Didache, XIV, 1.

5.

Richardson, op. cit., p. 163.

6.

Magnesians IX, 1.

7.

Note that the word for fire in Ugaritic is always isût, and that the regular form in Akkadian is isûatu.

8.

Life of Hadrian 5.2 (Historia Augusta)

9.

Ecclesiastical History 4.2.

10.

68.32.

11.

68.32.

12.

Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 4.2.

13.

For further details on this revolt, see Tcherikover’s Prolegomena in his Corpus Papyrorum Judaicarum, Vol. I, pp. 85–93.

14.

For the inscriptions, see Werner Eck, “Die Eroberung von Masada und eine neue Inschrift des L. Flavius Silva Nonius Bassus,” Zeitschrift fü;r die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 60 (1969) pp. 282–289.

15.

Hoffman, Egypt Before the Pharaohs, pp. 218–243.

16.

See, for example, R.O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead (London: British Museum, 1972).

17.

Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, vol. 1, p. 106.

18.

William MacQuitty, Island of Isis (New York: Scribners, 1976), pp. 152–153 and plate, frontispiece.

19.

Cyril Aldred, Akhenaten King of Egypt (London: Thames and Hudson, 1988), p. 225. The headdress is associated with the goddess Tefnut. Figure 60 shows this same crown, and cartouches above the head which identify the wearer as Nefertiti.

20.

For instance, see Aldred, Egyptian Art (London: Thames and Hudson, 1980), pp. 169–183.

21.

Aldred, Akhenaten, pp. 92–94 and fig. 13. A good assessment of the care necessary in considering Egyptian sculpture generally is Ronald Spanel’s Through Egyptian Eyes: Egyptian Portraiture (Birmingham Museum of Art, 1988), pp. 1–37.

22.

Rosalie David and Eddie Tapp, Evidence Embalmed (Manchester, UK: Manchester Univ., 1984), pp. 96–103. Table 4, p. 99, shows that modern Egyptians are 33 percent Group A, 24 percent Group B, 7 percent Group AB and 36 percent Group O. Preliminary work on mummies’ blood groups shows a similar distribution.

23.

See Frank M. Snowden, Jr., Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ., 1970); Before Color Prejudice: The Ancient View of Blacks (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ., 1983).

24.

Victor Barnouw, An Introduction to Anthropology. Vol. I: Physical Anthropology and Archaeology (Wadsworth, 1971).

25.

See General History of Africa II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa, ed. G. Mokhtar (Berkeley: Univ. of Calif., 1981), pp. 58–76.

26.

Cheikh Anta Diop, “Origin of the Ancient Egyptians,” in Mokhtar, General History of Africa, pp. 27–51.

27.

Ivan Van Sertima, African Presence in Early Europe (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Pub. [Rutgers], 1985); cf. Chancellor Williams, The Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of Race from 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D. (Chicago: Third World, 1974).